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Chapter 6: Unification of Empires (50 BCE – 500 CE)

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    • 6.1: Regional configurations of historical territories (50 BCE – 500 CE)
      After four centuries of unification and control by the Han dynasty in China, revolts, invasions, and internal wars devastated the empire. Buddhism had become a significant part of religious and political beliefs in Asia. China substantially influenced Korea, where Chinese processes and cultures were adopted. Korea transferred the same influence to Japan, spreading Buddhism throughout the region.
    • 6.2: Satavahana Empire (100 BCE – 300 CE)
      In the northern part of the expansive region, the Maurya flourished; however, in the southern section, the Satavahana Empire was beginning to grow. The empire lasted over four hundred years and was relatively successful while continually engaging in warfare with its neighbors. The origin of the empire is unknown; however, Simuka is listed as the first king in a Satavahana inscription.
    • 6.3: Kushan Empire 30 CE – 375 CE
      Although the Kushans were originally nomadic, they conquered and controlled a significant part of the Silk Road, touching into China and extending to the Mediterranean. The Kushan had an immense territory from the first to the third centuries, including parts of today's northern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The Kushan emperors supported Buddhism and actively propagated the religion into other countries, constructing religious complexes.
    • 6.4: Gupta Period (320 CE – 550 CE)
      Before the Gupta Empire started, other states and kingdoms in the region continued to fight each other for territory. When Chandragupta came to power, he expanded the army, and with his son Samudragupta, they conquered and united most of India. Chandragupta loved the arts and science and created an environment for the arts to flourish, even setting a precedent to pay artists. The Gupta Empire became known for supporting the arts and creative innovation.
    • 6.5: The Three Kingdoms of China 220 CE – 280 CE
      Towards the end of the long-lasting Han dynasty, the country was plagued by continual battles, changing alliances, and weakening power, marking the end of the peaceful empire. The last known Han emperor was only eight years old when he inherited the throne and had no power, leaving an open power vacuum and forming three different kingdoms. When the Han nation was destroyed, three different sectors were created and entitled by historians as the Three Kingdoms.
    • 6.6: Three Kingdoms of Korea 57 BCE – 668 CE
      After the fall of the Han dynasty in China, the area of current Korea was divided into different regions and eventually consolidated into three major kingdoms with a few independent city-states. Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla became the primary regions, eventually forming the Korean people. Goguryeo was the most prominent kingdom in the north, even controlling some of Northeast China. Baekje and Silla were in the southern part of the peninsula.