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9: Women Artists and the Influence of Feminism (1970 CE - 2000 CE)

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    • 9.1: Introduction
      At the end of World War II, the United Nations was formed, and one of the significant elements was the establishment of a Commission on the Status of Women. The commission was the first global intergovernmental organization to focus on gender equality. In 1970, the first International Women's Year was held in Mexico to elevate the global discussion on women's rights. The Women's Bill of Rights created an international program to safeguard women's human rights and end discrimination.
    • 9.2: Feminist Art (1970-2000)
      The term feminism originated from the French word "feminisme" and refers to the ideology and social movements advocating for women's equality. It gained popularity in the early 20th century, moving from Europe to the United States, and becoming synonymous with the Women's Movement. The word is a combination of "femme" (meaning woman) and "isme" (meaning social movement), and implies social change for women, ultimately leading to their right to vote in 1920.
    • 9.3: Cinematographic Art (1960 - 1999)
      Video art exploits audio and visual technology using multiple formats of recorders, computers, videotapes, television sets, projectors, and newer digital equipment. Video art began in the 1960s with analog video recorders and tapes. Nam June Paik was considered the pioneer of video art concepts. In 1965, he recorded and played it in a local café. Previously, only 8-mm and 16-mm films were available, and they had to be played on expensive, cumbersome equipment.
    • 9.4: Modern Sculpture (1970 – 2000)
      By the 1960s, the concept of sculptures was changed, and the trend towards abstract and figurative firmly in place as traditional ideas were rejected. New materials were available, and sculptors began experimenting with them, bringing more sophistication to create and manufacture sculptures and huge images. Sculptors no longer created a single figure out of marble or bronze; using multiple materials involved additional people beyond the artist.
    • 9.5: Young British Artists Chapter (1980s – 2000)
      In 1988, a group of young artists in Britain held two pop-up exhibits, Freeze in 1988 and Sensation in 1997. The art differed from the traditional, as artists used unusual materials and sometimes shocking images. The art was distinctive and almost notorious, and the artists earned the name Young British Artists (YBA). The negative coverage by the English press gained them publicity. Many artists attended or graduated from Goldsmiths College of Art in London.
    • 9.6: Modern Indigenous Art (1970-2000)
      The world's Indigenous Peoples all have distinctive social and cultural groups with ancestral connections to the natural lands and resources they currently reside or where they were dislocated. These resources and locations are intimately part of their ancestral identities, spiritual well-being, financial assets, and cultures. Generally, most groups maintain their leaders and organizations separate from the majority society and still have their ancestral languages.
    • 9.7: Photorealism (late 1960s -1980)
      Photorealism is based on the concept of an image closely resembling a photograph. The artists incorporated multiple media types, including painting, drawing, or mixed media, to create the same view as a camera. As one of the many art styles during this time, Photorealism developed from Pop Art and rejected the ideals of Abstract Expressionism or Minimalism. The camera and photography were more refined, and as the cost of colored photos became affordable, the camera became popular.
    • 9.8: Manga (1950-)
      Manga is a graphic art appearing a comics or graphic novels. The concept originated in Japan and is based on early Japanese styles. Manga may appear as comics or cartoons and printed in magazines and books. Published manga stories are generally drawn in black and white, although some artists do incorporate colors. Anime is closely associated with manga.

    Thumbnail: Fibonacci 400(Courtesy of the artist, Jylian Gustlin)

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