# 1.7: Grammaire

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##### L'introduction à l'impératif

The imperative, (l'impératif in French) is used to give commands, orders, or express wishes, like 'Stop!', 'Listen!' You may recognize the imperative from commands such as 'Ecoutez' or 'Répétez'. It is one of four moods in the French language. Unlike the other moods, the imperative is not divided into tenses. Keep in mind that the imperative is a very direct way to give an order. It is often replaced with more polite alternatives like the conditional.

##### Quelle phrase est plus polie ?

1. Aidez-moi avec la vaisselle. 2. Pourriez-vous m'aider avec la vaisselle ?

Phrase 2 (au conditionnel) est plus polie que Phrase 1 (à l'impératif)

##### La formation de l'impératif régulier

There are three forms of the imperative: tu, nous and vous. For all verbs, the imperative is formed by taking the corresponding forms of the present indicative, but without subject pronouns. The lack of a subject pronoun is what identifies the imperative mood.

The tu form is used to give an order to a child or when the speaker is on familiar terms with the person addressed. The vous form is used to give an order to a group of people or to address one person in the vous form. The nous form is used to give an order that involves oneself as well as others, though it often expresses a suggestion as its translation (Let's ... ) indicates.

 finir 'to finish' present imperative translation tu finis finis finish (you, familiar) nous finissons finissons let's finish vous finissez finissez finish
##### Transformez ces phrases polies dans des ordres

1. Est-ce que vous pourriez ouvrir la fenêtre ? 2. Est-ce que tu pourrais venir avec moi ? 3. Est-ce que nous pourrions faire une pause ?

1. Ouvrez la fenêtre ! 2. Viens avec moi ! 3. Faisons une pause !

##### Les verbes en ER et IR (ouvrir)

Drop the final s in the tu forms of the imperative for -er verbs, including aller, and -ir verbs like ouvrir and other verbs whose present indicative form of tu ends in -es:

 present imperative translation tu regardes regarde look tu ouvres ouvre open tu vas va go

When these forms are followed by the pronoun y or en, the -s is reattached for pronunciation purposes. For example: Vas-y ! Achètes-en !

##### La formation de l'impératif irrégulier

There are several verbs that have irregular imperative forms.

 avoir être savoir vouloir aie sois sache veuille ayons soyons sachons veuillons ayez soyez sachez veuillez
##### L'impératif des verbes pronominaux

For pronominal verbs, the subject pronoun is dropped and the object pronoun is placed after the verb and is attached with a hyphen. Te becomes toi in this situation.

 se souvenir 'to remember' present imperative translation tu te souviens souviens-toi remember nous nous souvenons souvenons-nous let's remember vous vous souvenez souvenez-vous remember
##### Les ordres au négatif

The forms of the affirmative imperative (an order to do something) have been presented in the above charts. In negative commands (an order not to do something), place the ne ... pas around the imperative, as in Ne regarde pas ('Don't look'). In negative commands for reflexive verbs, the object pronoun is placed in front of the verb: Ne te lève pas

##### Remplissez les blancs avec les verbes entre parenthèses à l'imperatif

1. Chers étudiants, .......... bien tous vos devoirs ! (faire). 2. Shasta, .......... prétentieux! (ne pas être). 3. Astérix et Obélix, .......... ,

vous dormez déjà depuis longtemps ! (se réveiller) 4. Shasta, .......... au stade pour participer au match ! (aller)

1. faites 2. ne sois pas 3. réveillez-vous 4. va

##### Les pronoms compléments d'objet avec l'impératif

Other non-pronominal pronoun objects follow the same placement as objects of pronominal verbs. As usual, the subject pronoun is dropped. In the negative, the ne precedes the object pronoun and the verb. In the affirmative imperative, the pronoun object follows the verb, and the forms moi and toi replace me and te.

For example: Aide-moi ! Ne me parle pas ! Fais-le ! Ne le fais pas !

##### Traduisez les phrases suivantes. Utilisez la forme informelle tu

1. Tell me! 2. Open it! 3. Write to her! 4. Don't talk to them!