Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

2.3: Grammaire - présentation

  • Page ID
    219882
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Les verbes réguliers en RE

    Verbs with infinitives ending in -re form a third group of regular verbs, often called 'third conjugation' verbs. To form the present tense conjugations of these verbs, drop the -re from the infinitive and add the third conjugation endings (-s, -s, -, -ons, -ez,-ent) to the resulting stem. As you listen, note especially that the final -d and -ds in the singular forms are silent. In the third person plural the 'd' consonant sound of the stem is pronounced because of the -ent ending. Can you hear the difference in the pronunciation of the singular and plural forms of the third person? (il vs. ils)

    descendre 'to go down'
    je descends nous descendons
    tu descends vous descendez
    il/elle/on descend ils/elles descendent
    past participle: descendu

    Here is a list of common regular -re verbs:

    attendre, to wait for rendre, to hand in, give back
    dépendre de, to depend (on) rendre visite à quelqu'un, to visit someone
    entendre, to hear répondre, to answer, respond
    pendre, to hang vendre, to sell
    perdre, to lose

    Not all verbs ending in -re follow this pattern, however. Irregular -re verbs include : mettre, prendre, suivre, vivre, etc.

    Choisissez un verbe correct et mettez-le au présent

    1. Les chats sont autonomes. Ils ne ... (répondre / dépendre) de personne. 2. Tous les matins je/j'... (attendre / vendre) le bus. 3. Quand nous sommes paresseux, nous ... (entendre / perdre) beaucoup de temps sur Instagram.

    Answer

    1. dépendent 2. attends 3. perdons

    Les formes contractées

    The prepositions à or de contract with the definite articles le and les to give the following forms:

    de + le = du

    de + les = des

    à + le = au

    à + les = aux

    La and l' on the other hand do not contract after à and de. Note that these contractions also occur with two- and three-word prepositions ending with à or de (jusqu'à, près de, loin de, à côté de, etc.).

    Exemples:

    Shasta joue souvent au stade. Astérix habite près du campus.

    Complétez ces phrases avec les formes contractées correctes

    1. A gauche ... musée il y a un café très sympa. 2. Le prof explique la grammaire ... étudiants.

    Answer

    1. du 2. aux

    Les adjectifs démonstratifs: les formes

    Demonstrative determiners ('this', 'these', 'that' or 'those') are used to point out things or people. They are also sometimes called demonstrative adjectives (in French 'adjectifs démonstratifs'); they agree in number and gender with the noun they introduce.

    Note that liaison is compulsory between ces and words starting with a vowel or a silent h.

    Masculine singular: ce
    Masculine singular
    before a vowel sound: cet
    ce quartier
    cet immeuble
    this neighborhood
    this apartment building
    Feminine singular: cette cette rue this street
    Plural (masculine or feminine): ces ces quartiers
    ces immeubles
    these neighborhoods
    these apartment buildings
    Les adjectifs démonstratifs: le sens

    In general, demonstrative determiners designate something one can see or show:

    Demonstrative determiners can designate something close or far away: in order to distinguish between two or more elements, you can add the suffixes -ci or -là to the demonstrative determiner. The suffix -ci indicates that the item is relatively near to the speaker; -là suggests that something is farther away. In English, they are generally translated by 'this' and 'that':

    Complétez ces phrases avec les adjectifs démonstratifs corrects

    1. ... hôtel est très beau. 2. ... pont est vieux. 3. Nous aimons ... banlieue. 4. Je vais souvent à ... magasins.

    Answer

    1. cet 2. ce 3. cette 4. ces

    Le passé composé avec avoir: le sens et les formes

    The passé composé is the most commonly used tense to refer to actions completed in the past. The passé composé may be translated into English in three different ways depending on the context.

    This tense is called the passé composé because it is composed of two elements: the present tense of an auxiliary verb (either avoir or être), followed by a past participle:
    transdot.gif
    passé composé = present tense of auxiliary + past participle
    transdot_n7ju.gif
    Note that in most instances the auxiliary verb is avoir, but some verbs require être as the auxiliary.

    Examples: - Tu as passé un bon weekend, Shasta ? 

    - Oui, je suis allé au centre commercial et j'ai acheté un nouveau T-shirt.

    For regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -er, the past participle is formed by replacing the final -er of the infinitive with . Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the passé composé of the verb 'parler'. The past participle (parlé) is pronounced the same as the infinitive (parler), even though they are spelled differently.

    The past participle of regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -ir is formed by dropping the final -r from the infinitive. For example, the past participle of finir is fini.

    The past participle of regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -re is formed by replacing the final -re of the infinitive with -u. For example, the past participle of perdre is perdu.

    Note that many verbs, however, have irregular past participles. The past participles of many common irregular verbs which have avoir as an auxiliary are listed below.

    parler 'to talk'
    j'ai parlé, I (have) talked nous avons parlé, we (have) talked
    tu as parlé, you (have) talked vous avez parlé, you (have) talked
    il, elle / on a parlé, he, she (it) / one (has) talked ils / elles ont parlé, they (have) talked
    finir 'to finish'
    j'ai fini, I (have) finished nous avons fini, we (have) finished
    tu as fini, you (have) finished vous avez fini, you (have) finished
    il, elle / on a fini, he, she (it) / one (has) finished ils / elles ont fini, they (have) finished
    perdre 'to lose'
    j'ai perdu, I (have) lost nous avons perdu, we (have) lost
    tu as perdu, you (have) lost vous avez perdu, you (have) lost
    il,elle / on a perdu, he, she (it) / one (has) lost ils / elles ont perdu, they (have) lost
    infinitive translation past participle
    avoir to have eu
    être to be été
    faire to do fait
    ouvrir to open ouvert
    prendre to take pris
    mettre to put mis
    suivre to follow suivi
    boire to drink bu
    croire to believe cru
    voir to see vu
    savoir to know su
    connaître to know connu
    dire to say dit
    lire to read lu
    écrire to write écrit
    pouvoir to be able to pu
    vouloir to want voulu
    devoir to have to
    tenir to hold tenu
    recevoir to receive reçu

    Negation of the passé composé is formed by placing ne ... pas around the conjugated verb, which, in this case, is the auxiliary avoir.

    Mettez ces phrases au passé composé

    1. Je parle à mon ami. 2. Shasta prends la navette. 3. Astérix et Obélix boivent de la potion magique. 4. Nous finissons les devoirs. 5. Tu ne perds pas ton temps.

    Answer

    1. J'ai parlé à mon ami. 2. Shasta a pris la navette. 3. Astérix et Obélix ont bu de la potion magique. 4. Nous avons fini les devoirs. 5. Tu n'as pas perdu ton temps.

    Le passé composé avec être

    The verb être is used as an auxilliary verb in passé composé for two categories of verbs: 1. pronominal verbs 2. several very common intransitive verbs, listed below.

    Aller, venir, arriver, partir, entrer, sortir, monter, descendre, naître, mourir, tomber, rester, passer, revenir, rentrer, retourner, devenir.

    Examples: Je me suis réveillé à sept heures ce matin.

    Shasta et Sasha sont allés au théâtre. Ils sont revenus tard, très contents.

    A few of these verbs of movement (monter, descendre,sortir, passer, retourner) may sometimes take a direct object, thus becoming transitive. When they do, the auxiliary used is avoir, instead of être.

    Examples: Nous avons monté l'escalier (direct object) au sixième étage.

    Le criminel a sorti un revolver (direct object) de sa poche.

    Tu as passé un bon weekend (direct object), Shasta ? 

    It is important to note that many intransitive verbs of movement, like courir and marcher, do not use être but avoir.

    aller 'to go'
    je suis allé(e), I went (have gone) nous sommes allé(e)s, we went (have gone)
    tu es allé(e), you went (have gone) vous êtes allé(e)(s), you went (have gone)
    il / on est allé, he / one went (has gone) ils sont allés, they went, (have gone)
    elle est allée, she went (has gone) elles sont allées, they went, (have gone)

    The past participles of the verbs that use être as an auxiliary are regular except for the following:

    infinitive translation past participle
    venir to come venu
    devenir to become devenu
    revenir to come back revenu
    naître to be born
    mourir to die mort

    The past participle of a verb which takes être agrees in gender and number with the subject; that means an -e is added to the past participle to agree with a feminine subject and an -s is added for a plural subject. If the subject is feminine plural, -es is added.

    Mettez ces phrases au passé composé

    1. Sasha va au cinéma. 2. Tous les étudiants arrivent en classe. 3. Astérix tombe de sa chaise.

    Answer

    1. Sasha est allée au cinéma. 2. Tous les étudiants sont arrivés en classe. 3. Astérix est tombé de sa chaise.

    Aknowledgment: some parts of this page are partially adopted from Francais Interactif.


    2.3: Grammaire - présentation is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?