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4.1: Research and Citing Sources

  • Page ID
    233343
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    Creating art is often the result of new insights or interpretations of previous information. Therefore, knowing about photographers from the past as well as contemporary artists allows you to participate in the larger, ongoing conversation about photography as an artistic medium and the world we live in. By recognizing the contributions of other thinkers and artists, you contextualize your work and place it in relation to the larger context of art history, ideology, and social communities.1

    No matter where you get information, images included, or how you use the information, you must provide a citation so that you are giving credit to the original ideas of others. Those in the arts field most often use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). For images, while it may not be possible to find all the information, you should provide as much information as possible. For formal papers and presentations, provide both a caption for the image and a bibliography entry.

    References

    [1] Meeks, Amanda, Larissa Garcia, Ashley Peterson, and Alyssa Vincent. (2017). “CREATE: Adapting the Framework to Studio Art disciplines.” College & Research Libraries News 78, no. 10: 554. https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.78.10.554.

    Note

    In addition to the example images and corresponding CMOS captions and citations below, you will notice image descriptions set off by brackets to minimize confusion with the caption examples. Image descriptions provide textual descriptions of an image or graphic so that people who use screen readers get the information. Best practice for digital publishing requires image descriptions and alt text (brief image description included for the image file) and is important for making an electronic document accessible. Therefore, image descriptions have been provided for all of the images included in this textbook. For more information on writing image descriptions, go to the Guide to Image Descriptions from AccessiblePublishing.ca.

    Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition): Basic Guidelines

    • An illustration number may be separated from the caption by a period or a space. Figure may be abbreviated or spelled out.
    • Captions and citations should include the artist's name, title of work (italicized), year the work was created, and where it is located. Include additional information, such as medium, measurements, and rights/licensing information if available.
    • Be sure to include the date accessed and the URL if the source is online.
    • Be consistent with how captions are displayed.

    Chicago Style Citation Format for an Image

    • Caption: Fig. #. Artist’s name, Title, Date, Medium. Measurements. Location: publisher. (Rights/licensing.)
    • Bibliography: Artist’s name (last name, first name). Date. Title. Medium. Measurements. Location: publisher. (Rights/licensing.)

    For example, below is an image downloaded from the Art Institute of Chicago with the caption.

    Girl cotton mill spinner
    Figure \(\PageIndex{20}\) : Lewis Wickes Hine. Saide Pfeifer, a Cotton Mill Spinner, Lancaster, South Carolina. 1908. Gelatin silver print. 8 × 9 15/16 in. Art Institute Chicago (Public Domain via AIC)

    [Image description: Black and white image from the early 1900s of a little girl standing in front of factory loom that is spinning wool.]

    The CMOS citation for the bibliography would be

    Hine, Lewis Wickes. Saide Pfeifer, a Cotton Mill Spinner, Lancaster, South Carolina. Gelatin silver print. 8 × 9 15/16 in. Art Institute Chicago. Accessed January 10, 2024. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/23336/sadie-pfeifer-a-cotton-mill-spinner-lancaster-south-carolina.

    Other Image Citation Examples

    Image scanned from a book

    Caption:

    Fig. 1. Alice Neel, Nancy and the Rubber Plant. 1975, Oil on canvas, 203.2 x 91.4 cm. The Estate of Alice Neel. In Ann Temkin et al. Alice Neel. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Plate 64.

    Bibliography entry:

    Neel, Alice. Nancy and the Rubber Plant. 1975, Oil on canvas, 203.2 x 91.4 cm. The Estate of Alice Neel. In Alice Neel edited by Ann Tempkin, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Plate 64.

    Image downloaded from museum website

    Portrait of Julia Jackson
    Figure \(\PageIndex{21}\): Julia Margaret Cameron, Julia Jackson. 1867. Albumen silver print from glass negative, 27.4 x 20.6 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Accessed January 10, 2024, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/267426. (Public Domain)

    [Image description: Haunting black and white portrait photograph of a woman with long hair and a neutral expression, with half her face in shadows.]

    Bibliography entry:

    Cameron, Julia Margaret. Julia Jackson. 1867. Albumen silver print from glass negative, 27.4 x 20.6 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Accessed January 10, 2024. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/267426.

    Image downloaded from image-sharing websites (i.e., Flickr Commons)

    William Rudolf O'Donovan
    Figure \(\PageIndex{22}\): Thomas Eakins, William Rudolf O'Donovan. 1981, Black and white photographic print, 6 x 8 cm. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Accessed January 9, 2024, http://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/2547841439. (No known copyright restrictions)

    [Image description: Black and white photograph of sculptor William Rudolf O'Donovan next to a bust of a bearded man.]

    Bibliography entry:

    Eakins, Thomas. William Rudolf O'Donovan. 1981, Black and white photographic print, 6 x 8 cm. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Accessed September 29, 2009. https://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/2547841439.

    Image downloaded from Flickr (personal images uploaded by others)

    Vienna Rathaus
    Figure \(\PageIndex{23}\): Fig. 5. Vienna Rathaus. 1872-1883 by Friedrich von Schmidt. Photography by Harshil Shah, Vienna - Rathaus, May 31, 2009, Flickr. Accessed January 9, 2024, http://www.flickr.com/photos/harshilshah/3823135957. (CC BY-ND)

    [Image description: Photograph of exterior hallway with stone columns and black iron and glass hanging lanterns.]

    Bibliography entry:

    Shah, Harshil. Vienna - Rathaus, May 31, 2009, Flickr. Accessed January 9, 2024, http://www.flickr.com/photos/harshilshah/3823135957.

    Additional Source Citation Examples

    Book

    Thomas, Mickalene. 2018. Mickalene Thomas: I Can’t See You Without Me. Columbus: Wexner Center for the Arts, The Ohio State University.

    Scholarly Article

    Matsumura, Kimiko. “The Death of Painting and Its Afterlife in Morimura Yasumasa’s Portrait (Futago).” Arts (Basel) 12, no. 5 (2023): 196.

    Article from an Online Reference Database

    Falconer, Morgan. "Morimura, Yasumasa." Grove Art Online. 10 Dec. 2000. Accessed 25 Oct. 2023. https://www-oxfordartonline-com.auth.lib.niu.edu/groveart/view/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.001.0001/oao-9781884446054-e-7000097151.

    Film

    Sotheby’s. Sotheby’s Spotlight: The Pilara Foundation Collection: Dorothea Lange and Katy Grannan, 2023. YouTube. Video, 3:38. Accessed September 12, 2023. https://youtu.be/ovHJNcYOFiM?si=W3mcMPHddWO2rXhi

    Website

    Gaylord, Kristen. “Cindy Sherman.” MoMA. 2016, accessed January 2, 2024. https://www.moma.org/artists/5392


    This page titled 4.1: Research and Citing Sources is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jessica Labatte and Larissa Garcia (Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI)) .

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