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Humanities LibreTexts

6.9: Key Takeaways

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    Key Takeaways

    An academic argument is based on documented research and evidence, has an academic audience, makes a solid convincing argument, uses conventional format, usage and punctuation and has a documented citation style.

    Certain types of arguments address certain types of issues. Some of those arguments are facts, definition, evaluation and proposal.

    The key reasoning appeals to audience are ethos (credibility), logos (logic) and pathos (emotion) and Kairos (occasion).

    Three types of argument approaches used quite often in argument essays are the Classical Western, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument.

    Logical fallacies are false concepts that are seen as failure in logic. You want to avoid them in your argument and in your writing.

    Counterarguments are the arguments that show the opposition of the main claim in an essay/article.

    There are different types of reasoning that can be identified through the writing and the concepts in writing. Three of those types of reasoning are deductive, inductive and abductive.

    Please understand that in looking through a cultural perspective, argument may be presented in a different way, so always be aware of the cultural context of an argument.