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9.17: Putting It Together- ¿Estás triste? ¿Por qué?

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    • Erica Brown, Alejandra Escudero, María Cristina Montoya, & Elizabeth Small
    • SUNY Oneonta via OER SUNY

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    Click on each link below for a review summary to help you complete the assignments and prepare for the quiz to demonstrate your mastery of the objectives.

    Adjetivos de emoción y condición

    interesado/a (interested)

    aburrido/a (bored)

    sorprendido/a (surprised)

    emocionado/a (excited)

    asustado/a (frightened)

    despierto/a (awake)

    dormido/a (asleep)

    cansado/a (tired)

    borracho/a (drunk)

    confundido/a (confused)

    alegre (happy)

    contento/a (content/happy)

    feliz (happy)

    triste (sad)

    deprimido/a (depressed)

    enamorado/a (in love)

    enojado/a (angry)

    en forma (fit, in good shape)

    sano/a (healthy)

    enfermo/a (sick)

    tranquilo/a (tranquil and calm)

    preocupado/a (worried)

    estresado/a (stressed)

    nervioso/a (nervous)

    frustrado/a (frustrated)

    ocupado/a (busy)

    limpio/a (clean)

    sucio/a (dirty)

    vivo/a (alive)

    muerto/a (dead)

    abierto (open)

    cerrado/a (closed)

    orgulloso/a (proud)

    avergonzado/a (embarrassed) 

    Algunas respuestas (some answers/responses):

    -  ¡Felicitaciones! (Congratulations!)

    -  ¡Qué bien! (That’s great!)

    -  ¿De veras? ¿Qué pasa? (Really? What’s going on?)

    -  Lo siento. (I’m sorry.)

    -  Oh, ¡qué horror! (Oh, that’s terrible!)

    Estar + emotions

    Estar is used with descriptive adjectives to talk about emotional conditions and states of being.

    - Ana está muy contenta y tranquila. (Ana is very happy and calm.)

    Ser vs estar with adjectives

    Adjetivos usados con ser: Personality, general lifestyle, or qualities

    Ser is used to talk about the inherent, essential or identifying qualities or characteristics of a person or thing:

    • alto/a (tall) – bajo/a (short)
    • amable/a (nice, amiable) – antipático/a (unfriendly)
    • honesto/deshonesto (honest/dishonest)
    • inteligente (intelligent)

    Adjetivos usados con estar: Conditions or states

    Estar is used to talk about the temporary, relative, or contingent condition of a person or thing:

    • contento (happy, content) – triste (sad)
    • sano (healthy) – enfermo (sick)
    • tranquilo (calm) – preocupado (worried)
    • cansado (tired) – enérgico (energetic)

    When trying to decide between ser and estar, ask yourself: is this a characteristic of the person/thing (use ser), or is it a condition or state (use estar)? For this reason, emotions usually go with estar, while personality traits go with ser.


    ¿Cómo? literally means “how?”, but is not always translated that way in English.

    Notice in the following examples how the difference between ser and estar drives a different translation of ¿cómo?.

    “¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás?” “Estoy bien, gracias.” (Hi! How are you?” “I’m fine, thanks.”) “¿Cómo es tu novio?” “Es cómico y muy inteligente.” (“What is your boyfriend like?” “He’s funny and very intelligent.”)

    Conjunciones coordinadas

    The four main coordinating conjunctions in Spanish are: y (and), o (or), pero (but), and porque (because).

    Porque vs. ¿por qué?

    These two words are frequently confused in Spanish because of their similarities in spelling and pronunciation, but they are really completely different words.

    ¿¿Por qué me haces esto?? (Why are you doing this to me??)
    Lo hago porque me preocupo por ti. (I do it because I worry about you.)


    Contributors and Attributions

    • Putting It Together: Estu00e1s triste, u00bfpor quu00e9?. Authored by: Lumen Learning. License: CC BY: Attribution

    This page titled 9.17: Putting It Together- ¿Estás triste? ¿Por qué? is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Erica Brown, Alejandra Escudero, María Cristina Montoya, & Elizabeth Small (OER SUNY) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.