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4.7: Oblique Case

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    Oblique Case Video

    Instructor Video: Oblique Case

    Case is a property of a word which indicates its uses within a phrase or a sentence. In Hindi, based on form, there are two types of case: (a) Direct case, and (b) Oblique case.

    (a) Direct Case: The direct case is used with a nominal phrase is not followed by a post-position.
    (b) Oblique Case: The oblique case is used with a nominal phrase is followed by a post-position.
    Nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs change in oblique case form when followed by a post-position.
    Note: Please note that when a nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs are in oblique case form, they do not change their meanings. It is just a grammatical form which has nothing to do with the meaning of those words. This is why, typically, Hindi learners struggle to acquire this very crucial but meaningless feature of Hindi language.

    Oblique Noun

    Masculine Singular Oblique Nouns

    Only singular masculine nouns that ends in आ changes into ए in oblique case form. Others (singular masculine that does not end in आ and singular feminine) do not change.

    For Examples:
    • लड़का —- लड़के का नाम “boy’s name.” (आ changes into ए)
    • आदमी — आदमी का नाम “man’s name” (No change)

    Feminine Singular Oblique Nouns

    When a feminine singular noun is followed by any post-position, it does not change its form.

    For Examples:
    • लड़की — लड़की का नाम “girl’s name” (No change)
    • किताब — किताब का नाम “Book’s name” (No change)

    Plural Oblique Nouns

    All plural nouns (masculine and feminine) change into ओं or यों in their oblique case forms.

    For Examples:
    • लड़के — लड़कों के नाम “Boys’ names”
    • शहर — शहरों के नाम “Cities’ names”
    • लड़कियाँ — लड़कियों के नाम “Girls’ names”
    • किताबें — किताबों के नाम “books’ name”

    Oblique Nouns Summary

      Masculine Feminine
    Singular Type I Type II Type I Type II
      -आ changes in -ए No change No change No change
      लड़का – लड़के का

    कमरा – कमरे में

    घर -घर का

    मकान – मकान में

    लडकी – लड़की को

    खिड़की – खिड़की पर

    किताब – किताब में

    मेज़ – मेज़ पर

    Plural Type I Type II Type I Type II
      All masculine and feminine plural nouns change into ओं or यों
      लड़के – लड़कों को

    कमरे – कमरों में

    घर -घरों का

    मकान – मकानों में

    लडकियाँ – लड़कियों को

    खिड़कियाँ – खिड़कियों पर

    किताबें – किताबों में

    मेजें – मेजों पर

    Oblique Adjectives

    As we know Hindi adjectives can be classified into marked and unmarked adjectives.
    Marked adjective (that ends in आ) changes in ए for oblique adjective form.
    For Examples:
    • अच्छा – अच्छा लड़का —- अच्छे लड़के का नाम “good boy’s name”
    • मीठा — मीठा फल — मीठे फलों में “In sweet fruits”
    Unmarked adjective (that does not end in आ) does not change in oblique adjective form.
    For Examples:
    • सुन्दर — सुन्दर लड़की — सुन्दर लड़की का नाम “beautiful girl’s name” (No change)
    • हवादार — हवादार कमरा — हवादार कमरे में “In a airy room” (No change)

    Summary of Oblique Adjectives

      Oblique Adjectives
      Marked Unmarked
    Rules -आ changes in -ए No change
    Examples अच्छा – अच्छा लड़का – अच्छे लड़के का

    मीठा – मीठा फल – मीठे फलों में

    सुन्दर – सुन्दर लड़की – सुन्दर लड़की का नाम

    हवादार – हवादार कमरा – हवादार कमरे में

    Oblique Verbs

    We will learn more about verb in the next chapters (5 and 6). Here, please know that all the verbs in Hindi end in -आ, to be specific -ना.
    For examples:
    • खाना “To eat”
    • पढ़ना “To read”
    • सोना “To sleep”
    Rule to change direct verb in oblique verb: -आ changes in -ए
    For Examples:
    • खाना “to eat” – खाने के लिए “in order to eat/ to eat.”
    • पढ़ना “to read” – पढ़ने से “by reading.”
    • सोना “to sleep” – सोने से पहले “before sleeping.”

    Oblique Pronouns

    Hindi pronouns also change into oblique form when followed by a post-position.
    Pronouns in English Pronouns in Hindi Examples of pronouns with post-position
    Direct Oblique Pronouns + को Pronouns + से
    I मैं मुझ मुझे / मुझको मुझ से
    We हम हम हमें / हमको हम से
    You तू तुझ तुझे / तुझ को तुझ से
    You तुम तुम तुम्हें / तुम को तुम से
    You आप आप आप को आप से
    S/he (near) यह इस इसको इससे
    S/he (far) वह उस उसको उससे
    They (near) ये इन इनको इनसे
    They (far) वे उन उनको उनसे
    Who (Sing.) कौन किस किसको किससे
    Who (Plu.) कौन किन किनको किनसे
    What (Sing.) क्या किस किसको किससे
    What (Plu.) क्या किन किनको किनसे

    Test Yourself

    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=1200
    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=1200

    धन्यवाद !


    This page titled 4.7: Oblique Case is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Rajiv Ranjan (Michigan State University Libraries) .

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