# 1.3: Dependent Vowels, and Vowel-Consonant Conjugation

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$

$$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$

$$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

## Dependent Vowels

Vowels in Hindi can be written independently (we learned this in the last part) and dependently. When we write a word we need to conjugate consonant with vowel letter. In order to write that consonant and vowel clusters, we need to use dependent vowel marking attached with consonant. Here is a list of dependent vowel markers.

Table 6 (above). List of independent and dependent vowels in Hindi.
Independent
Dependent
Independent
Dependent
###### ौ
Independent   अं अ:
Dependent

### Dependent Vowel Letters with Consonant Letters

Please watch the following video to learn how dependent vowels conjugate with consonant letters. Table 7 also shows examples of how half consonants are conjugating with dependent vowels.

Instructor Video: Dependent vowel and consonant conjugation

 Half consonants क् ग् त् द् प् व् स् ह् Independent Vowels Dependent Vowels Conjugated consonant letters अ Ø क ग त द प व स ह आ ा का गा ता दा पा वा सा हा इ ि कि गि ति दि पि वि सि हि ई ी की गी ती दी पी वी सी ही उ ु कु गु तु दु पु वु सु हु ऊ ू कू गू तू दू पू वू सू हू ए े के गे ते दे पे वे से हे ऐ ै कै गै तै दै पै वै सै है ओ ो को गो तो दो पो वो सो हो औ ौ कौ गौ तौ दौ पौ वौ सौ हौ अं ं कं गं तं दं पं वं सं हं अ: ः क: ग: त: द: प: व: स: x ऋ ृ कृ गृ तृ दृ पृ वृ सृ हृ

### Test Yourself

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=681

Please try to read the words in Worksheet 4 (below). You can write them down in Roman script then watch the video and check your answer.

 काका काला काकी कोख घी गमला कुछ चाचा झकाझक चखो कई आग कोई कौआ अचूक जाओ आओ टोपी डाकू ढीली बगीचा माता थोड़ा लड़का लड़की कठिनाई किताब देवनागरी बारिश शाबाश सिलाई ऋण कृपया भाषण पृथ्वी प्रकाश कार्य प्रगति ग्राहक वर्तमान कुर्सी चक्र नम्रता पर्व मर्द

Instructor Video: Feedback on Worksheet 4

## Consonants Cluster/Conjunct Consonants

### Similar Consonants Cluster

In Hindi, similar consonants can come together in a word. They are pronounced as a lengthened consonants.

For example:

 पक्का बच्चा कुत्ता pakkaa bachchaa kuttaa

### Different Consonants Cluster

In Hindi, different consonants can come together in a word. For pronunciation, one should start with the place of articulation of the first consonant, but move the tongue position to the second consonant before releasing the air.

For example:

 सत्य प्यार त्वचा saty pyaar twachaa

### Dependent Vowel-Consonants Cluster Conjugation

When the dependent vowels come together with the consonant clusters, the dependent vowels are marked at the second consonant in a consonant cluster.

Exception the short “i” [इ/ि) marker, the short “i” marker comes before the half/first consonant in a consonant cluster.

For example:

 आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ ा ि ी ु ू े ै ो ौ क्या शक्ति पत्नी च्युत न्यूनतम क्लेश द्वैत त्योहार प्रौढ़ kyaa shakti patnii chyut nyoonatam klesh dvait tyohaar prauRh