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1.2: हिंदी व्यंजन वर्ण "Hindi Consonant Letters"

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    Please watch the following video of Hindi consonant letters. While watching the video, you can pause and try to say each letter out loud.

    Instructor Video: Hindi Consonant letters

    Writing Consonant Letters

    Please watch the following video and try to learn how to write consonant letters.

    Instructor Video: Writing Consonants

    Table 4. List of Consonant Letter with their English equivalent sounds.

    Table 4 (above). Hindi consonant letters with their English equivalent and their place and manner of articulations.
    Place of Articulation Unvoiced Unaspirated Unvoiced Aspirated Voiced Unaspirated Voiced Aspirated Nasal
    Hindi Velar

    English   ka kha ga gha nga
    Hindi Palatal

    English   cha chha ja jha nja
    Hindi Retroflex

    ड/ड़

    ढ/ढ़

    English   Ta Tha Da/Ra Dha/Rha Na
    Hindi Dental

    English   ta tha da dha na
    Hindi Labial

    English   pa pha ba bha ma
    Hindi Semi-vowels

     
    English   ya ra la va/wa  
    Hindi Sibilants

       
    English   sa sha shha    
    Hindi Glotal

           
    English   ha        
    Hindi Clusters

    क्ष

    त्र

    ज्ञ

       
    English ksha tra jna    

    Table 5. Examples of Hindi Consonants in English and Hindi words

    Table 5 (above). Examples of consonant letters in Hindi and English words.
    Consonants English Hindi Notes

    SKILL, STICK
    लम, पड़ा
     

     
    रगोश, रा
    “ख” is pronounced as “क,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    GUN, GOAL
    मला, ड़बड़
     

     
    र, ड़ी
    “घ” is pronounced as “ग,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

     
    गंगा, कंघी
    Velar nasal does not explicitly appear in a word. It comes as a dot (.) above the letter to show nasalization.

    PITCH, SWITCH
    रखा, रित्र
     

     
    त, ड़ी
    “छ” is pronounced as “च,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    JUG, JOKE
    ग, टिल
     

     
    रना, गड़ा
    “झ” is pronounced as “ज,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

     
    पंजाब, पंच
    Palatal nasal does not explicitly appear in a word. It comes as a dot (.) above the letter to show nasalization.

    BAT, CAT
    मार,
     

     
    ठेरा,
    “ठ” is pronounced as “ट,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    BAD, CARD
    मरू, ब्बा
     

     
    क्कन, हना
    “ढ” is pronounced as “ड,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

     
    ठंडा, अंडा
    Retroflex nasal does not explicitly appear in a word. It comes as a dot (.) above the letter to show nasalization.

     
    रबूज, नाव
    “त” is pronounced as “ट,” with the tongue at dental position.

     
    रमस, कना
    “थ” is pronounced as “त,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    THE, THEN
    वा, रवाज़ा
     

     
    न, नुष
    “ध” is pronounced as “द,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    NO, NEAR
    ल, हाना
     

    NAP, SLEEP
    तंग, लंग
     

     
    ल, टना
    “फ” is pronounced as “प,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    TUB, PUB
    करी, दन
     

     
    लाई, रोसा
    “भ” is pronounced as “ब,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

    MOM, MONEY
    छली, मता
     

    YELLOW, YES
    ज्ञ,
     

    REST, RIVER
    स्सी, चना
     

    LAMP, LARGE
    ट्टू, ड़का
     

    WAY, WINE
    वर्दी, वकील
    Hindi has only “व” for English “W,” and “V.”

    SUN, SERVICE
    ब्ज़ी, ड़क
     

    SHOE, SHINE
    लगम,
     

     
    ट्भुज, ड्यंत्र
    “ष” is pronounced as “श,” with the tongue at retroflex position.

    HINDI, HUB
    रा, रिन
     

    क्ष

     
    क्षत्रिय, वृक्ष
    “क्ष” is a borrowed letter from Sanskrit. It does not have English equivalent.

    त्र

     
    त्र, पात्र
    “त्र” is a borrowed letter from Sanskrit. It does not have English equivalent.

    ज्ञ

     
    ज्ञ,
    “ज्ञ” is a borrowed letter from Sanskrit. It does not have English equivalent.

    Worksheet 2. Please practice writing these consonant letters

    Worksheet 2. Hindi language learners can download the worksheet below to practice writing consonant letters.

    Worksheet 2 PDF

    Test Yourself

    Activity 1: Match the followings

    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=674

    Activity 2: Choose the correct option.

    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=674

    Activity 3:

    Please record your consonant sounds here and share it with your friends/teacher for further feedback.

    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=674

    Reading and Writing Task

    You should try to read the words in Worksheet 3 (below). You can write them down in Roman script then watch the following video and check your answer.

    Worksheet 3 (above). Reading and Writing: Please read these words and try to write them in Roman script and then check your answer using video 5 (below).

    जल

    नल

    सच

    झट

    रथ

             

    फल

    हल

    मत

    पर

    घर

             

    डर

    बस

    कह

    चख

    कर

             

    मत

    हर

    अब

    पढ़

    यम

             

    कलम

    कमल

    खरब

    कलश

    महल

             

    बतख

    मदन

    पलक

    नहर

    भजन

             

    शहद

    शहर

    सड़क

    मगर

    चरण

             

    पकड़

    इधर

    ऊपर

    गरम

    परत

             

    कसरत

    अजगर

    दशरथ

    शरबत

    टमटम

             

    बरगद

    नटखट

    उबटन

    परवल

    पनघट

             

    चमचम

    लगभग

    करवट

    जगमग

    हलचल

             

    Instructor Video: Feedback on Worksheet 3

    Half Consonants

    Unlike English, Hindi has half consonants (consonant without vowel). In Hindi, half consonants are used to form consonant clusters in words.

    Please watch the following video to learn how to write half consonant.

    Instructor Video: Half Consonants

    Half-Consonants-300x225.jpeg
    Picture 1. Handwritten half consonant in both styles.
    Half-Consonants-1-300x169.jpg
    Picture 2. Typed half consonants in Hindi

    Half “र” (R)

    Half “र” when it comes in a consonant cluster, it is written in two ways.

    (a) When half “र” comes after another consonant, it is marked as a diagonal stroke at the bottom of the letter going from right top to the left bottom.

    For example:

    प्र प्रेम Prem
    क्र क्रम kram
    ग्र ग्राहक graahak

    (b) When “र” come before another consonant, it is marked on the top of another consonant as a “रेफ” reph.

    For example:

    र्प सर्प sarp
    र्य आर्य aary
    र्षा वर्षा (if there is a long vowel, reph goes on the top of the long vowel) warshhaa

    धन्यवाद !


    This page titled 1.2: हिंदी व्यंजन वर्ण "Hindi Consonant Letters" is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Rajiv Ranjan (Michigan State University Libraries) .