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Vos

  • Page ID
    164342
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    Overview

    While much of the Spanish-speaking world uses "tú" to address someone informally, another option exists in much of the Americas: the "vos" form. As shown in the map below, in some countries, such as Argentina, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, & Uruguay, "vos" is the more common or the only way to address someone. In others, such as Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, & Venezuela, both "vos" and "tú" may be used.

    Vos map with legend.png

    It is important to note that the "vos" form can vary in conjugation across countries and regions; the remainder of this page will describe this form as it exists in normative Rioplatense (Argentina) Spanish. For more information, see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voseo

     

    Vos vs tú

    In nearly all verb tenses, "vos" and "tú" share the same conjugation; the exceptions to this are the present indicative, affirmative commands, and some pronouns.

     

    Indicativo

    Presente

    To form the present indicative, drop the -r from the infinitive and add an -s, which creates the need for a written accent on the final vowel (pensar → pensás; poner → ponés; decir → decís). There are three irregular verbs: haber (has), ir (vas), and ser (sos).

     

    Pretérito

    In Rioplatense (Argentina) Spanish, the most common practice is for vos to follow the same preterite conjugations as "tú", including all irregulars: hablar  → hablaste; beber  → bebiste; vivir  → viviste; ser  → fuiste; poner  → pusiste; etc.

    In some regions, the form may also have an added "s" on the end: hablastes, bebistes, vivistes, etc. There may be some stigma associated with this form.

     

    Imperfecto

    In Rioplatense (Argentina) Spanish, vos follows the same imperfect conjugations as "tú", including all irregulars: hablar  → hablabas; beber  → bebías; vivir  → vivías; ir → ibas; ser  → eras; ver  → veías; etc.

     

    Mandatos

    Recall that for informal commands such as "vos", the command form is different depending on whether the command is affirmative (i.e. telling someone "yes, do this") or negative (i.e. telling them "no, don't do this").

    Affirmative vos commands, used only in parts of America for informal situations, simply drop the -r from the infinitive, which creates the need for a written accent (ponerponé). There is only one irregular: for ir affirmative commands, use either the form (ve), or switch to andar (andá).

    Negative vos commands, like all other negative commands, use the present subjunctive. 

    Mandatos & pronombres

    When attaching a single pronoun to the end of affirmative vos commands, the accent mark gets removed. It reappears if two pronouns are added together:

    • Comé la manzana. >> Comela.
    • Decí la verdad. >> Decime la verdad. >> Decímela.

     

    The table below summarizes both the affirmative and negative forms of vos commands.

    Formas de los mandatos

      affirmative negative
    vos

    -á, -é, -í

    hablá, comé, viví, traé, jugá, oí

    present subjunctive*:

    no hables, no comas, no vivas, no traigas, no juegues, no oigas

    *Remember, the vos form can vary across regions. This text uses the vos form following normative Rioplatense (Argentina) Spanish, in which vos has the same present subjunctive form as . For more information, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voseo#Subjunctive

    This section incorporates some information from 52. El modo imperativo / Commands by Enrique Yepes, licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

     

    Subjuntivo

    Presente del subjuntivo

    In Rioplatense (Argentina) Spanish, the most common practice is for vos to follow the same present subjunctive conjugations as "tú", including all irregulars: hablar  → hables; beber  → bebas; vivir  → vivas; dormir  → duermas; poner  → pongas; etc.

    While other forms do exist in the region as well, there may be some stigma associated with their use. For more information, see https://en.wikiGpedia.org/wiki/Voseo#Subjunctive

     

    Pronombres

    Subject Pronoun Vos Ejemplo: Vos querés comer.
    Direct / Indirect Object / Reflexive Pronoun Te

    Ejemplo: Te quiero (a vos).

    Ejemplo: ¿Querés el regalo? Te lo doy.

    Ejemplo: Te lavás la cara cada noche.

    After a preposition Vos

    Ejemplo: Te quiero a vos y por eso quiero estar con vos.

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