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1.6: Key Terms

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    Ahimsa
    one of the highest virtues of classical Indian religions. It is the practice of refraining from harming other living things.
    Argument
    a set of sentences, where some of those sentences (called premises) provide support for another sentence, called the conclusion.
    Coherence
    a situation in which it is possible for a set of beliefs or statements to be true at the same time.
    Common sense
    knowledge primarily derived from perception that seems clearly or obviously true.
    Conceptual analysis
    the process of taking apart and making sense of sentences or claims by examining their component parts.
    Definite description
    a method of conceptual analysis that substitutes a descriptive phrase that uniquely identifies the object or thing named for an object term or proper name.
    Enumeration
    the listing of the component parts of a concept, notion, or thing.
    Experimental philosophy
    philosophy that uses methods from experimental science to test claims made in philosophy.
    Intuition
    certain and evident cognition; the kind of knowledge that is so clear that it seems impossible for it to be false.
    Logic
    the formalization of reasoning.
    Milesians
    a school of early philosophers from Miletus; followers of Thales. They were known for examining the underlying causes of natural phenomena.
    Philosophy
    the “love of wisdom.” An academic discipline that attempts to grasp the broadest possible understanding of things. It is characterized by rational explanation and a willingness to question assumptions.
    Predicate
    the portion of a sentence that provides the description or characterization of an object or name. (A philosophical predicate is different from the predicate of grammar, and their definitions should not be confused.)
    Reflective equilibrium
    a process of reviewing a theoretical position by going back and forth between the theory and its practical applications. This process seeks coherence between theory and practice.
    Sage
    a wise person. Many ancient cultures designated important wise figures as “sages.”
    Sanatana dharma
    the core or absolute set of moral and religious duties ordained for all people of ancient India, regardless of class or caste, and that predate the term Hinduism.
    Socratic method
    a method of questioning used by Socrates (and named after him later) to help people understand what they were thinking and to arrive at some truth.
    Thought experiment
    an imaginative scenario that tests some philosophical theory or concept by considering how it might apply in the imagined situation.

    This page titled 1.6: Key Terms is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Nathan Smith et al. (OpenStax) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.