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6: Women Artists in the Industrial Age (1800 CE - 1900 CE)

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    • 6.1: Introduction (1800 CE – 1900 CE)
      By the end of the century, social and political changes developed with multiple factions and views demanding reforms, sowing the seeds of revolution in the next century. The British Empire became the world's powerhouse, overseeing and controlling extensive territory in Canada, South Africa, parts of Africa, multiple islands, Egypt, India, and ports in China. When the century ended, the empire controlled a fifth of the world, including twenty-five percent of its population.
    • 6.2: Realism (1848-1880)
      During the Realism, revolutionary changes were happening throughout Europe, expanding nationalism and the interest in state borders tempered by the interconnections of the industrial revolution. As the population increased, agricultural production broadened to support the people's food needs, expanding the peasant labor and machinery needed to work the fields. Industrial manufacturing and distant trade markets required extensive labor in factories and demands for transportation grew.
    • 6.3: Hudson River School (Mid-19th century)
      During the mid-19th century, Americans experienced a sudden fascination with the Adirondacks, Catskills, and the White Mountains as a destination for tourism. These scenic regions offered artists of the time a fresh canvas, and they took full advantage of this by embarking on hikes and mountain climbs to paint the breathtaking natural beauty they encountered. This artistic movement, known as the Hudson River School, marked a significant milestone in the history of American art.
    • 6.4: American West (1800-1900)
      Significant westward expansion originated in 1803 when Thomas Jefferson signed the Louisiana Purchase, paying France fifteen million dollars for land west of the Mississippi River from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border. France only controlled a minimal amount of the region, most inhabited by Native Americans. After the purchase was signed, Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark on their famous journey to the Pacific Ocean, opening new territory.
    • 6.5: Impressionism (1874-1886)
      Impressionism significantly changed the process of painting, influencing artists around the world. Their main passion was natural light and color, how the light intensified colors or changed the hue. They also wanted to capture the moment, sitting outside en plein aire and working with quick, dynamic brushstrokes on brushes loaded with paint. The ideas created new concepts of nature and people, and how things portrayed on the canvas formed an impression of a view without all the details.
    • 6.6: The Art of Quilting (1800-1900 CE)
      Quilting has been a form of art since ancient Egypt and has been practiced for centuries. However, it was during the 19th century in the United States that quilting became more popular. Women used quilting to express their creativity and showcase their skills while fulfilling practical home needs. During this period, quilting was mainly a domestic practice done by women in their homes. They often gathered in small groups, known as quilting bees, to work together on quilts.

    Thumbnail: Flora 5 (Courtesy of the artist, Jylian Gustlin)

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