- 12.7: The Mongol Era
- The Mongols greatly expanded into Central Asia during the thirteenth century. There they reunited with the Turkic groups who had been expelled from the Orkhon Steppe over the course of a millennia. The Mongols confronted many Turkic peoples who had radically altered their existence since their days on the plains and adopted a stationary way of life.
- 12.9: The Khanate of the Ilkhans (1265-1335)
- The Ilkhans were a Mongol minority ruling over a Muslim majority; religious problems plagued the Ilkhanate for much of its existence.
Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294 superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia. Image used with permission (CC BY-SA 2.5 Generic; Astrokey44 and Sting via Wikipedia).