Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

9: Chapter 9

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Vocabulary Introduction

    Exercise 1 Prior Knowledge

    Look at the words in bold in Exercise 2 without reading the example sentences. Rate your current knowledge of the word before doing the unit exercises. Use the numbered scale and write the number in front of the sentences in Exercise 2. With each exercise and by the end of the unit, your knowledge should work toward a "4", which means you will know the word, can explain it and give an example. It is expected that you will mark many words with a "1" or "2" now since they might be completely new words.

    1. I do not know this word, and I have never heard of it before.

    2. I have heard of this word before. It sounds familiar.

    3. I can give an example of this word, but I cannot explain it.

    4. I know this word. I can explain it and give an example.

    Exercise 2 Definitions

    Read the sentences below. Guess the meaning of the words in bold based on the example sentence(s). Circle the best definition of the word in bold.

    ____ 1. Alicia was determined to pass the class, so she studied often.

    Your definition:

    ____ 2. The financial aid will help me have more time to study instead of working.

    Your definition:

    ____ 3. Parents should be involved in their children’s lives by doing activities on the weekend, talking at dinnertime, and taking trips together.

    Your definition:

    ____ 4. Ahmed will never disobey his parents. He follows all the rules.

    Your definition:

    ____ 5. The abandoned house attracted homeless people and drug activity.

    Your definition:

    ____ 6. His body rejected the medicine. He had to change his treatment strategy.

    Your definition:

    While You Read

    Exercise 3

    Take Cornell Notes on a separate piece of paper. To help you, read the passage first and write margin notes and highlight. Next, transfer your notes into a Cornell Notes template.

    Empowering the Black Power Movement by

    This informational text discusses how the Black Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s emerged as a major political force following the Civil Rights Movement. While the Civil Rights Movement helped end legal segregation in America, the Black Power movement sought to end the economic and social inequality that African Americans continued to face. As you read, take notes on how the Black Power Movement was formed.

    1On June 5, 1966, the Civil Rights Movement’s James Meredith was shot in an ambush as he attempted to complete a peaceful solo “March Against Fear” from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi. Meredith had already made national headlines in 1962 by becoming the first African American to enroll at the University of Mississippi.

    2Civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr., Floyd McKissick of CORE, and Stokely Carmichael of SNCC rushed to Meredith's hospital bed. They determined that his march must be completed. As Carmichael and McKissick walked through Mississippi, they observed that when it came to race relations, little had changed despite federal legislation. Local townspeople harassed the marchers while the police turned a blind eye or arrested the activists as troublemakers.

    3At a mass rally, Carmichael uttered the simple statement: “What we need is black power.” Crowds chanted the phrase as a slogan, and a movement began to flower.

    4Carmichael and McKissick were heavily influenced by the words of Malcolm X, and rejected integration as a short-term goal. Carmichael felt that blacks needed to feel a sense of racial pride and self-respect before any meaningful gains could be achieved. He encouraged the strengthening of African American communities without the help of whites.

    5Chapters of SNCC and CORE — both integrated organizations — began to reject white membership as Carmichael abandoned peaceful resistance. Martin Luther King Jr. and the NAACP denounced black power as the proper forward path. But black power was a powerful message in the streets of urban America, where resentment boiled and tempers flared.

    6Soon, African American students began to celebrate African American culture boldly and publicly. Colleges teemed with young blacks wearing traditional African colors and clothes. Soul singer James Brown had his audience chanting “Say it loud, I'm black and I'm proud.” Hairstyles unique to African Americans became popular and youths proclaimed, “Black is Beautiful!”

    7That same year, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale took Carmichael's advice one step further. They formed the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California. Openly brandishing weapons, the Panthers decided to take control of their own neighborhoods to aid their communities and to resist police brutality. Soon the Panthers spread across the nation. The Black Panther Party borrowed many tenets from socialist movements, including Mao Zedong's famous creed “Political power comes through the barrel of a gun.” The Panthers and the police exchanged gunshots on American streets as white Americans viewed the growing militancy with increasing alarm. Newton himself was arrested in October of 1968 after he was involved in a shootout with police that left an officer dead. Despite the escalation in violence around the country, the Black Panther Party kept growing.

    8The peaceful Civil Rights Movement was dealt a severe blow in the spring of 1968. On the morning of April 4, King was gunned down by a white assassin named James Earl Ray. Riots spread through American cities as African Americans mourned the death of their most revered leader. Black power advocates saw the murder as another sign that white power must be met with similar force. As the decade came to a close, there were few remaining examples of legal discrimination. But across the land, de facto segregation loomed large. Many schools were hardly integrated and African Americans struggled to claim their fair share of the economic pie.

    9Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement led by CORE, SNCC, and NAACP achieved much with their nonviolent civil disobedience methods in regards to ending Jim Crow laws and supporting integration laws. But the 1970s would belong to the Black Power movement.

    Empowering the Black Power Movement” by is licensed under CC BY 4.0

    Text-Dependent Questions

    Exercise 4

    Directions: For the following questions, choose the best answer or respond in complete sentences.

    1. PART A: Which of the following best identifies a central idea of this text?

    A. The Black Power movement’s main purpose was to incite violence against white power.

    B. The Black Power movement’s goals included integration and ending police brutality.

    C. The Black Power movement’s purpose was to establish black pride and protect black communities.

    D. The Black Power movement’s goals included empowering black urban youth and arming them for their own protection.

    2. PART B: Which TWO phrases from the text best support the answer to Part A?

    A. “Carmichael and McKissick were heavily influenced by the words of Malcolm X, and rejected integration as a short-term goal.” (Paragraph 4)

    B. “Carmichael felt that blacks needed to feel a sense of racial pride and self-respect before any meaningful gains could be achieved.” (Paragraph 4)

    C. “they observed that when it came to race relations, little had changed despite federal legislation” (Paragraph 2)

    D. “Openly brandishing weapons, the Panthers decided to take control of their own neighborhoods to aid their communities and to resist police brutality.” (Paragraph 7)

    E. “Riots spread through American cities as African Americans mourned the death of their most revered leader.” (Paragraph 8)

    F. “Many schools were hardly integrated and African Americans struggled to claim their fair share of the economic pie.” (Paragraph 8)

    3. How does the inclusion of paragraph 6 contribute to the author’s description of the Black Power movement?

    A. It explains how black musicians were more influential than black activists.

    B. It depicts the enlightenment and spiritual awakening of the Black Power movement.

    C. It shows how the movement celebrated and uplifted African Americans.

    D. It reveals the wide gap between white America and black America during integration.

    4. What statement best describes the relationship between Stokely Carmichael and Huey Newton?

    A. Carmichael’s call for black power inspired Newton to physically empower black communities.

    B. Carmichael’s exclusion of white members inspired Newton to form a black-only movement.

    C. Newton worked with Carmichael to learn how to start the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California.

    D. Newton’s self-defense methods scared Carmichael because of Newton’s conflicts with police.

    Reading Skill-Inference

    Inference is a process you do every day. It is a practice by which readers use information to draw conclusions about a situation. Inferences are not answers found directly in a reading. Instead, you “read between the lines.” For example, “Veronica was blowing her nose.” We might infer that Veronica is sick or has allergies. Be careful not to go too far beyond the information provided.

    Exercise 5

    Read the job description below and answer the question.

    My day starts at 4am. I do a lot of walking. I go through about 4-5 pairs of shoes each year. My feet hurt sometimes from all the walking. Another problem is the dogs. Sometimes they are friendly, while other times they are aggressive. My job is not all bad. I get to meet new people and learn about their private lives, too. It never gets boring!

    1. What job is being described?
    1. Circle the information that helped you decide what job is being described.

    Exercise 6

    Choose a couple of jobs from the list below. Describe them to a classmate so that they can infer which job is being described.

    farmer nurse firefighter food server

    banker dentist mechanic engineer

    teacher librarian secretary florist

    police officer soccer player chef hairdresser

    pilot travel agent taxi driver pharmacist

    accountant author lawyer car salesperson

    What can you logically infer from the following situations?

    1. Traffic comes to a complete stop on northbound highway 41 south of Herndon.

    2. You telephone your friend at 11:00am on Sunday, and she answers in a groggy, hoarse voice.

    3. Your mother comes home from her job interview with lobster, steak, and champagne in her grocery bags.

    Grammar-Sentence Structure Errors


    Fragments are incomplete sentences because they either have a subject or verb missing or they are an incomplete idea.


    Incorrect: Because you went to sleep late. (incomplete idea)

    Incorrect: Making dinner every day. (no verb)

    Incorrect: Is studying for her exam. (no subject)

    There are several ways to fix fragments.

    1. Add to the incomplete idea (dependent clause).

    Because you went to sleep late. You were tired this morning. (incorrect)

    Because you went to sleep late, you were tired this morning. (correct)

    2. Add a verb.

    Making dinner every day. (incorrect)

    Making dinner every day can save money! (correct)

    3. Add a subject.

    Is studying for her exam. (incorrect)

    Lulu is studying for her exam. (correct)

    Exercise 7 Practice Identifying and Correcting Fragments

    Determine if there is a fragment in the sentences below. If there is a fragment, write “F.” If there isn’t a fragment, write “C” for “correct.” Dependent clauses will begin with one of these subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, since, unless, until, when, while. Circle the subordinating conjunctions as you scan through the sentences.

    ____ 1. Although Mariam loves to eat broccoli. She refuses to eat it.

    ____ 2. I will be successful on the test if I am able to practice.

    ____ 3. When it is summer. I don’t like to bake because the house will become too hot.

    ____ 4. Hussain traveled across California until his money ran out.

    ____ 5. Minori had a baby girl. After she returned to Japan.

    Run-ons and Comma Splices

    A run-on (or fused) sentence is when two or more sentences are written without punctuation dividing them. A comma splice is when two sentences are divided by a comma. Both a run-on and comma splice are incorrect English grammar.

    Run-on: The grass was tall I cut it.

    Comma splice: The grass was tall, I cut it.

    Run-on and comma splice sentences can be fixed in several ways.

    1. A period .

    The grass was tall. I cut it.

    2. A semi-colon ;

    The grass was tall; I cut it.

    3. A coordinating conjunction (, + for and nor but or yet so)

    The grass was tall, so I cut it.

    4. A conjunctive adverb (; ______ , or . _______ , )

    The grass was tall; therefore, I cut it.

    5. A subordinating conjunction

    Because the grass was tall, I cut it. (showing reason)

    The grass was tall before I cut it. (showing sequence)

    Exercise 8 Practice Identifying and Correcting Run-on and Comma Splice Sentences

    Identify whether the sentence is a run-on or comma splice. Correct the sentences using one of the five strategies above.

    ____ 1. Yasmeen had been planning this trip for months; however, when her work called she couldn’t say no.

    ____ 2. Ammar had enjoyed the trip he saw so many new places.

    ____ 3. Chen turned off the lights, he forgot to lock the door.

    ____ 4. Jose did not work today, however, he did not relax.

    ____ 5. Once Onika got home she began studying for her exam.

    Social Change Essay Draft 1

    Exercise 9

    Use the outline from Chapter 8 to write the first draft of your essay (a 5-paragraph essay on the most effective strategies for social change). When you write your draft, be sure to use strategies for the introductory and conclusion paragraphs, which were covered in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. Remember that you are trying to convince the reader that these are effective strategies, so be sure to provide strong reasons why these strategies will bring change. You are encouraged to use examples from the readings in this unit.

    Vocabulary Practice

    Exercise 10 Sentence Completion

    Complete the sentences using the vocabulary in the box below.

    determined to involved in reject

    abandon. disobey aid

    Table 20 Chapter 9 Sentence Completion

    1. Esmeralda had to ________________ the car and walk to the gas station.

    2. Jorge is ________________ sports and clubs on campus.

    3. Christina ________________ offers of help. She wanted to do it alone.

    4. Soloman ________________ his mother and went to the party although she said not to.

    5. After the earthquake, ________________ arrived from different regions of the country.

    6. Natasha is ________________ lose weight, so she only eats salads.

    Exercise 11 Discussion Questions

    Take notes answering the questions below. Then discuss your answers with a partner or group.

    1. Tell about a time you were determined to do something. Why were you so determined?

    2. Tell about a time you disobeyed your parents, teacher, or an authority.

    3. Are you or your children involved in any clubs or organizations (e.g., sports or religious)? Explain. Why or why not?

    This page titled 9: Chapter 9 is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Rebecca Al Haider.

    • Was this article helpful?