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Chapter 9: Imperial Power (1500 CE – 1700 CE)

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    • 9.1: Regional configurations of historical territories
      By the beginning of the 1500s, Asia was divided into large empires and kingdoms. It was the age of imperial power, with the Ottomans, Persians, Mughals, and Chinese initially dominating trade. The silk and maritime roads created well-established trade processes between Asian and European nations. By the middle of the 16th century, trade routes crossed all the inhabited continents and promoted the exchange of culture, the arts, diplomacy, and religions.
    • 9.2: Joseon Dynasty (1392 – 1910)
      The Joseon Dynasty was exceptionally long and had existed for over five hundred years. The dynasty was a period of scientific and technological inventions and cultural efflorescence. Founded in 1392 by Yi Seong-gye[1] and lasting until 1910, Korean artistic identity developed as distinct from China and Japan. Confucian ideology became the governmental decreed religion, and Buddhism was discouraged.
    • 9.3: Mughal and Rajput (1530 – Late 18th century)
      The Mughal Empire covered 3.2 million square kilometers, most of the Indian subcontinent. The period was known as the golden age, when art flourished and was held in high esteem by the Mughal court. During the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, artwork in India was based on three different religious principles, Islamic, Hindu, or Buddhism, illustrating India's culture and beauty. The Mughal painting style started around 1530 when the emperor returned from Persia.
    • 9.:4 Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351-1767)
      The Ayutthaya Kingdom existed from 1351 to 1767 and is displayed on the map (9.4.1) as a bright purple country. European voyagers in the 1500s believed Ayutthaya was one of the major Asian powers. The kingdom later became modern Thailand. The early kingdom was based on the maritime regions by the seas before expanding to the inland areas. For a short while, Burma controlled the area from 1569 to 1584 until the kingdom was under the king's control.
    • 9.5: Kano School (Late 15th century – 1868)
      The powerful Tokugawa shogunate ruled Japan for over 250 years, bringing prosperity and a lively urban culture. Artisans and merchants who produced and sold goods were considered an essential part of society. During this period, the Kano Art School was started by Kano Eitoku. Kanō Tan’yū, Kanō Sanraku, and Kanō Sansetsu were some of the master painters and leaders. According to Japanese history, the Kano Art School was the most influential in painting, and it experienced the longest tenure.