Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

Chapter 5: (400 BCE – 50 BCE)

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    • 5.1: Regional Configurations of Historical Territories
      A Han Dynasty palace was found in Siberia, an unusual discovery in Xiongnu-controlled territory. The Han expanded trade across Asia, including the Silk Road with Parthians' help. Buddhism spread through Asia, reaching China via the Silk Road. King Asoka's conversion to Buddhism spread Buddhist art and architecture. Monasteries were built for monks to reside, and stupas enshrined Buddha's relics.
    • 5.2: The Silk Road (200 BCE - 200 CE
      The Maritime Silk Road and the Overland Silk Road were prominent trade routes that connected different parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and Europe. The Maritime Silk Road was established initially around 200 BCE when boats navigated from one port to another along the coastal regions, and it was a vital link for trade in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
    • 5.3: Mauryan Empire (322 BCE – 185 BCE)
      India was divided into multiple smaller territories, ruled by local chiefs and always subject to invasions by others. As Chandragupta Maurya became the leader of one region, he began to expand. The power of Alexander the Great was receding, and Chandragupta started to consolidate some areas. When Alexander died, Chandragupta took advantage, creating an army and capturing large swathes of land. He crowned himself king and started the Mauryan Empire, the largest empire in India's history.
    • 5.4: Qin Dynasty (221 BCE – 206 BCE)
      The Qin dynasty existed for a very short period from 221-210 BCE; however, the time was significant in Chinese history. During the Warring Period, Qin Shi Huang emerged as the conqueror of the region. As the new emperor, Qin Shi Huang consolidated the disparate states into one Chinese government, naming himself emperor, a title used in China for two thousand more years.
    • 5.5: Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 229 CE)
      As the Qin dynasty ended, many independent areas were united into one entity led by the brutal Qin emperor. After Liu Bang overturned the Qin and gained control of the country as the Han emperor, he instituted new humane rules. Literature, mathematics, science, and the arts prospered throughout the country, and the period was called the golden age. The influential philosophies of Confucianism, Legalism, and Taoism thrived, and multiple ideologies grew from the basic tenets.
    • 5.6: Xiongnu – 3rd century BCE – 1st century CE
      The Xiongnu Empire was mainly located in present-day Mongolia and stretched from Northern China, southern Siberia, and Central Asia for three centuries. The nomadic people populated the Eurasian Steppe. The Xiongnu were pastoral, nomadic people who maintained large herds of horses, cows, and sheep. They did not establish agriculture, construct large cities or walled structures. The men were exceptional warriors, riding on horseback and fighting with bows and arrows while in motion.
    • 5.7: Yayoi Period 300 BCE – 250 CE
      The Yayoi culture followed the long-lasting Jomon culture in Japan. Around 400 BCE to 300 BCE, immigrants migrated from the mainland areas of China and Korea, integrating with the Jomon and developing the Yayoi culture. The immigrants brought new metallurgy and agriculture technologies to Japan into the Iron Age. Ancient Chinese historians called the Yayoi' the people of Wa'. With the latest technologies, the Yayoi moved from the hunter-gatherer Jomon to an agricultural society.