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Chapter 2: Neolithic Period (5000 BCE – 2000 BCE)

  • Page ID
    219954
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    • 2.1: Regional Configurations of Historical Territories
      Asia spans a vast territory, and each area has its unique history and culture. The historical narrative of Asia encompasses East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, parts of the Middle East, and some of the steppes of Central Asia. The great river basins in these regions were vital to the development of their communities and supported the largest populations. However, some areas, such as the mountain ranges and deserts, were relatively uninhabited.
    • 2.2: Neolithic Period
      Between 7000 BCE and 1700 BCE, China saw the emergence of settlements along its primary river systems during the Neolithic period. These settlements were strategically located near waterways, with the Yellow River in central and northern China and the Yangzi River in southern and eastern China playing significant roles. This period marked a significant shift from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one of settled agricultural communities.
    • 2.3: Jeulmun Pottery Period (8,000-1500 BCE)
      Decorated pottery defined the name Jeulmun pottery period. The people living the Southern region of Korea still maintained the characteristics of hunter-gatherers with only small-scale agriculture. Most of the people fished, hunted, and grew a limited number of food products. Multiple settlements did not appear until 3500-2000 BCE.
    • 2.4: Early Jomon (5000 BCE – 2500 BCE)
      In the Jomon Period of Japan, some small permanent settlements were established, yet they continued to be hunter-gatherers. Their houses were shallow pit houses in groups of 10-12 homes per site. Although agriculture was not evident in the early Jomon civilization, they had plentiful hunting, gathering, fishing, and mollusks. The separation of Japan from the Asian mainland possibly kept the civilization a hunter/gatherer society instead of evolving into a farming society like China.
    • 2.6: Indus Valley – Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro (3300 BCE – 1900 BCE)
      The people of the Indus Valley were known for their advanced urban planning, elaborate sewer systems, kiln-baked brick homes, and water reserve systems. They also had clusters of urban government buildings, making them substantially more advanced than other civilizations. Additionally, they developed metallurgy techniques for producing bronze, lead, tin, and copper.
    • 2.7: Liangzhu Culture (3300 -2250 BCE)
      The Liangzhu culture, located near coastal China, was one of the last major Neolithic cultures, although very influential in the region. The culture was based on jade, silk, and ivory, materials found in elite burials, and common people were buried with pottery, indicating the development of an elite population. The culture was especially powerful around 2500 BCE and then disappeared about two hundred years later.
    • 2.8: Longshan (3000 BCE – 1900 BCE)
      The Longshan culture in Northern China comprised several small Neolithic communities in northern China's middle and lower regions of the Yellow River valleys. Its namesake was the modern-day city of Longshan in the Shandong province. The Yellow River originates from the Tibetan mountains, traverses through China, and eventually discharges into the Yellow Sea towards the east.