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4.5: Key Patterns and Forms

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    1. Level 1: Temporal Conjunction [VCS+서]

    • You may have learned VCS+서 as a conjunction expressing a cause or a reason. The very same form is also used as a temporal conjunction, like the –고 form introduced in Chapter 3.
    • However, the temporal conjunctions VCS+서 and –고 are NOT to be used interchangeably. Certain verbs have to be in VCS+서 and others in the VS+고 form: the verbs of motion such as go, come, go up, go down, get off, turn, etc., and some other verbs like meet and make would be in the VCS+서 form.
    • Also note that when linking two actions with VCS+서: 1) the agent that performs the actions should be the same; and 2) the second action follows the first action immediately.
    • Here are some examples from the story:

    - 환웅은 바람, 비, 구름 신과 함께 인간세계로 내려와서 세상을 잘 다스렸습니다.

    HwanWoong came down to the human world with the gods of wind, rain, and cloud; and governed the world well.

    - 그러던 어느날 곰과 호랑이가 환웅을 찾아와서 이렇게 말했습니다.

    Then one day a bear and a tiger came to HwangWoong and said this.

    • Marking the tense: The tense CANNOT be marked in the VCS+서 conjunction. On the other hand, the tense CAN be marked in –고 each time, or just in the main verb:

    Ex > VCS+서

    나는 지난 주말에 뉴욕에 가서 관광했어요.

    “Last weekend, I went to New York and did some sightseeing.”

    Ex > -고

    나는 지난 주말에 재미있는 영화를 보고 좋은 책을 읽고 맛있는 저녁을 먹었어요; OR

    나는 지난 주말에 재미있는 영화를 봤고 좋은 책을 읽었고 맛있는 저녁을 먹었어요. “Last weekend, I saw an interesting movie, read a good book, and had a delicious dinner.”

    • Below is a chart showing some examples of verbs used for –고 and VCS+서 conjunctions:



    Temporal/Sequential Conjunction


    Temporal/Sequential Conjunction

    Verbs & Examples
    • Verbs of eating and drinking: 먹다; 마시다; 들다 ; 잡수시다 ; 드시다
    • Verbs of Motion:

    - 가다; 오다

    - 가다/오다

    • compound verbs: 내려가다/내려오다; 올라가다/올라오다; 돌아가다/돌아오다; 들어가다/들어오다; 앉다; 서다


    • 점심을 먹고 가지 .
    • 저는 커피를 마시고 아침 시작해야 해 .
    • 늦었는데 아침은 먹고 나가야 돼요.


    • 오후에 도서관에 가서 공부할 거예요.
    • 2 층에 올라가서 친구를 데리고 오세요.
    • 들어와서 기다리세요.
    • 사람이 너무 많아서 자리가 없었어요. 그래서 서서 영화를 보고 나왔어요.
    • 앉아서 드세요.
    • 앉아서 보세요.
    • 96 가에서 내려서 밖으로 나오세요.
    Verbs & Examples
    • Verbs of clothing/attachment to body: 입다; 쓰다; 끼다; 하다; 매다; 차다; 들다
    • Others: 만들다; 쓰다 (write)


    • 추운데, 코트를 입고 나가세요.
    • 선글래스 쓰고 나갔어요.
    • 여기 짐은 들고 나가세요.


    • 그 파티에 저는 브라우니 만들어서 가지고 갈게요.
    • 편지를 써서 부쳐야 해요.
    Verbs & Examples
    • Verbs involving sensory systems: 보다; 듣다; 맡다


    • 잘 듣고 쓰세요.
    • 냄새를 맡고 부엌으로 뛰어 갔어요.
    Verbs & Examples  
    • Others: 타다


    • 시간이 없어서 택시를 타고 왔어요.

    2. Level 2: Expressing SimultaneousActions[VS+(으)면서V2 ]

    • VS+(으)면서 V2 is used when expressing simultaneous actions.

    Here are some examples taken from the Level 2 version:

    - 환웅은 인간세계에 관심이 아주 많아서 매일 하늘에서 인간세계를 내려다보면서 생각했습니다.

    Because HwanWoong was very interested in the human world, he was thinking while looking down on the human world.

    - 환웅은 인간과 자연을 조화롭게 다스리면서 좋은 세상을 만들어 갔습니다.

    While governing the human and the natural world harmoniously, HwanWoong proceeded to make a great world.

    - 백 일 동안 동굴에 살면서 햇빛을 절대 보면 안 된다.

    While living in the cave for 100 days, you should absolutely not see the sunlight.

    - 환웅한테서 받은 쑥과 마늘을 먹으면서 지냈습니다.

    They spent the days eating the mugworts and garlic that they received from HwanWoong.

    - 그러나 환웅의 말을 그대로 실천하면서 참고 견디고 기다렸습니다.

    But (the bear) was patient, endured, and waited while practicing what HwanWoong told them.

    • You can express two simultaneous actions using the form [VS+(으)면서 V2 ]: “while doing VS, do V2”

    Ex 1> 굽다 – 먹다 저도 많이 먹었어요. -> 저도 고기 구우면서 많이 먹었어요. “While I was roasting the meat, I, too, ate a lot.”

    Ex 2> 보다 - 만들다 한국 음식 만들었어요. -> 요리책 보면서 한국 음식 만들었어요. “While/by looking at the cooking book, I made Korean dishes.” ㄷ-irregular verbs:

    Ex 3> 듣다 - 읽다 책을 읽었어요. -> 음악 들으면서 책을 읽었어요. “While listening to music, I read a book.”

    Ex 4> 걷다 – 생각하다 생각했어요. -> 공원에서 걸으면서 생각했어요. “While walking in the park, I thought (about it.).” ㄹ-irregular verbs:

    Ex 5> 놀다 – 안 도와주다 그 친구를 안 도와줬어요. -> 집에서 놀면서 그 친구를 안 도와줬어요. “While playing idly, he did not help the friend.”

    Ex 6> 살다 - 만나다 사람들을 많이 만났어요. -> 한국에 살면서 사람들을 많이 만났어요. “While living in Korea, I met a lot of people.”

    • You can use the –고 conjunction to list more than one action in the “while” phrase:

    Ex1> 굽다; 만들다 – 기다리다 손님들을 기다렸어요. -> 고기도 굽고 떡볶이도 만들면서 손님들을 기다렸어요. “While barbecuing and making stir-fried rice cake (떡볶이), I waited for my guests.”

    Ex 2> 하다; 듣다 – 차리다 저녁을 차렸어요. -> 전화도 하고 라디오도 들으면서 저녁을 차렸어요. “While talking on the phone and listening to the radio, I prepared dinner.”

    3. Level 3: Providing Reasonsfor Previous Statements: Sentence 1. 이는~ sentence 2

    • [Sentence 1. 이는 ~ sentence 2]: “(Sentence 1). (This is because ~ (sentence 2)).” Or “(Sentence 1). (This means ~ (sentence 2)).”
    • After making a statement in Sentence 1, a new sentence, Sentence 2, begins with “이는” to provide reasons for the statement in Sentence 1. It can be also used to explain with details what Sentence 1 means. This is used mostly in formal writing.
    • At the end of Sentence 2, the main verb will be put it a form that expresses a reason or a cause, or gives an explanation, such as –기 때문이다, VCS 서이다, –ㄴ 것이다, etc.
    • Here are examples taken from the Level 3 version:

    - 환웅은 인간세계에 특별한 관심과 애정을 가지고 매일 하늘에서 인간세계를 내려다보았습니다. 이는 인간과 자연을 조화롭게 다스리고 좋은 세상을 만들고 싶은 생각을 가지고 있었 때문이었습니다.

    With special interest and affection, HwanWoong looked down to the human world everyday. This is because he had the thought of governing the human and the natural world harmoniously and making a great world.

    -그리고 백 일 동안 동굴에 살면서 밖으로 나오지 말아야 한다. 이는 햇빛을 절대 보면 안 되 때문이다.

    And you must not come out of the cave for 100 days. This is because you should absolutely not see sunshine.

    -그러자 스물 하루가 되는 날 곰은 자신이 아름다운 여자로 다시 태어난 모습을 볼 수 있었습니다. 이는 웅녀가 되어 인간으로 환생하는 소원을 마침내 이루게 된 것이었습니다.

    Then, on the twenty-first day, the bear was able to see herself reborn as a beautiful woman. This was her wish--to be incarnated as a human by becoming a ‘bear-woman’-- coming true at last.

    This page titled 4.5: Key Patterns and Forms is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by KyungAh Yoon (PDXOpen publishing initiative) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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