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4.3: Warm-up Activities

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    128443
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    1. Notable Elements

    Founding Philosophy & Symbolism

    1) 홍익인간 Broadly Benefiting Humanity

    • 홍 Hong: Broad; Broadly
    • 익 Ik: Benefit
    • 인간 InGan: Humanity; Human; Humankind; Mankind

    “홍익인간 HongIk InGan” is said to be the founding principle of Korea as DanGoon

    단군 founded Korea’s first kingdom with this ideal, “Broadly benefit humanity.”

    2) 천지화합 Unity of Heaven and Earth

    • 천: heaven
    • 지: earth
    • 화합: unity, harmony

    In the myth, HwanWoong 환웅, a god descended from heaven, marries WoongNyeo 웅녀, a woman incarnated from a bear. WoongNyeo 웅녀 gives birth to a son, DanGoon 단군, who becomes the founder of the first Korean state. This unity of a deity and a human symbolizes the oneness and harmony of heaven and earth.

    3) 바람, 비, 구름 Wind, Rain, Clouds

    In the myth, HwanWoong 환웅 brings the gods of wind, rain, and clouds with him when he comes down to the human world to rule. Wind, rain, and clouds are associated with weather, which is very important to agriculture. This suggests that Gojoseon 고조선, the first Korean state founded by DanGoon, regarded them highly for the wellbeing of the people.

    4) 쑥, 마늘, 동굴 Mugwort, Garlic, Cave

    In the myth, HwanWoong 환웅 gives the bear 곰 and the tiger 호랑이 conditions to fulfill to become human: Eat only mugwort and garlic; and live in a cave without light for 100 days. Mugwort and garlic both have bitter and were believed to have the power to drive away evil spirits. The confinement in the cave without any light represents a commandment they must fulfill. These conditions are said to symbolize the process of entering into a sacred, new life by way of getting through a trying time, enduring hardship, and observing the commandment.

    2. Pre-Reading Questions

    Based on the introductory videos, article, and the information presented in the Warm-up Activities above, supply the correct choice in the blank that best describes the characters and the ideas in The Myth of DanGoon.

    천지화합 | 호랑이 | 홍익인간 | 환웅 | 쑥과 마늘 | 곰 | 고조선 |환인 | 동굴 | 웅녀 | 단군

    _______________ Lord of heaven

    _______________ Son of the lord of heaven

    _______________ Animal that observed the commandment to become human

    _______________ Animal that failed to observe the commandment to become human

    _______________ Symbol(s) of endurance

    _______________ Place where the tiger and the bear were ordered to live for 100 days

    _______________ Woman that was incarnated from a bear

    _______________ Harmony between heaven and earth

    _______________ Founder of Korea’s first kingdom

    _______________ First kingdom of Korea

    _______________ Broadly benefit humanity

    3. KeyWords & Plot

    After watching at least two videos under Section B, provide a summary of the story using the given Key Vocabulary on Quizlet (Click). Regardless of your level though, make sure to use all essential words below:

    • ‘환인’
    • ‘환웅’
    • 아들 son
    • 하늘: heaven; sky
    • 왕 king
    • 인간 humanity; human; mankind
    • 세계 world
    • 인간 세계 human world
    • 호랑이 tiger
    • 곰 bear
    • 쑥 mugwort
    • 마늘 garlic
    • 동굴 cave
    • 100 일 100 days
    • 참다; 견디다 to endure; to bear
    • 되다 to become
    • 웅녀’
    • 결혼하다 to marry
    • ‘단군’
    • 낳다 to give birth
    • ‘고조선’
    • 세우다 to found; to erect

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    This page titled 4.3: Warm-up Activities is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by KyungAh Yoon (PDXOpen publishing initiative) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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