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3.5: Key Patterns and Forms

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    1-1. Level 1: Connecting SentenceswithVS+고Conjunction

    • VS+고 connects two or more sentences connected by 그리고. Note here that the tense is marked in the verb that ends the combined sentence (indicated in green). Let’s look at the sentences with –고 taken from the Level 1 version:

    - 부인은 마음씨가 곱고 솜씨가 좋았습니다. The wife was good-hearted and was dexterous.

    - 남편도 마음씨가 착하고 부인을 아주 아꼈습니다. The husband was also goodhearted and cherished his wife.

    - 이 이야기를 듣고 효녀 심청은 뱃사람들을 만나러 가서 말했습니다. After hearing this story, Devoted Daughter ShimCheong went to meet the sailors and told (them).

    -바다의 용왕님이 심청의 효성에 감동하시고 말씀하셨습니다. The Sea King of the sea was moved by ShimCheong’s filial piety and told (her).

    - 심청을 연꽃에 넣으시고 다시 인당수로 보내셨습니다. He put ShimCheong in a lotus flower and sent her back to the InDang Sea.

    - 딸 심청도 보이고 임금님도 보이고 궁도 보였습니다. He saw his daughter, ShimCheong; saw the King; and saw the palace.

    1-2. Level 1: Expressing Purpose ofGoing & ComingVerbs- VS+(으)러가다/오다

    VS+(으)러 가다/오다 (or any other verb with a meaning of going or coming) is a construction used to express an action of going or coming and its purpose. Here are some examples from the story:

    - 심봉사가 심청을 마중하러 나갔습니다. Blind Shim went out to welcome ShimCheong.

    - 처녀를 찾으러 다녔습니다. They went around to find an unmarried woman.

    - 효녀 심청은 뱃사람을 만나러 가서 얘기했습니다. Devoted Daughter ShimCheong went to meet the sailors and told (them).

    - 임금님께 드리러 바로 궁에 갔습니다. They went to the palace to give it to the King.

    2-1. Level 2: IntroducingNames & Quoting –N(이)라고하다

    N(이)라고 하다 is used when introducing a name as a new piece of information. Here are some examples taken from the Level 1 version:

    - 남편은 장님이라서 사람들이 심봉사라고 했습니다. The husband was blind, so people called (him) Blind Shim.

    - 심봉사 부부는 딸 이름을 심청이라고 했습니다. The Blind Shim couple named their daughter ShimCheong.

    - 열심히 일하고 장님 아버지를 극진히 모셔서 사람들은 심청을 ‘효녀 심청’이라고 했습니다. Because she worked hard and looked after her blind father with utmost devotion, people called her ‘Devoted Daughter ShimCheong.’

    N(이)라고 하다 is also used to quote someone. In this case, the N will be replaced by a direct quote, which in effect is being treated as a noun (N). Here are some examples taken from the story:

    - “부처님께 공양미 삼 백석을 바치면 눈을 뜰 수 있을 겁니다라고 했습니다. He said, “If you offer 300 bags of offertory-rice to Buhdda, you will be able to open your eyes.”

    - “제가 인당수 제물이 되겠습니다. 공양미 삼 백석을 아버지께 주세요라고 했습니다. She said, “I’ll be the sacrifice to the InDang Sea. Please give my father 300 bags of offertoryr-ice.”

    - “효성이 극진하구나. 다시 인간 세상으로 돌아가라라고 했습니다. He said, “Your heart of filial piety is indeed most sincere. Go back to the human world again.”

    - “와아, 이 꽃이 뭐지? 임금님께 갖다드리자라고 했습니다. They said, “Wow, what is this flower? Let us take it and give it to the King.”

    -신하들이하늘에서 왕후를 보내셨습니다라고 했습니다. The vassals said, “Heaven has sent us our Queen.”

    - “아버지, 아버지 딸 청입니다, 아버지!”라고 했습니다. She said, “Father, this is your daughter Cheong, Father!”

    2-2. Level 2: ExpressingHowThings TurnOut-VS+게되다

    • VS+게 되다 is used to highlight how things turn out after a chain of events or outside factors affect the outcome. Look at the sentences or clauses from the story below and think back to the circumstances for each. And think about why the verb is in the VS+게 되다 form rather than in a simple verb form:

    - 개천에 빠지게 되었는데 지나가는 스님이 보고 구해 주셨습니다. (Things happened such that) he fell into a brook; and a monk passing by saw and rescued him.

    - 어부들이 보게 되었습니다. (Things happened such that) Fishermen discovered it.

    - 심청은 임금님과 행복한 시간을 보내게 되었지만 ~ (Things unfolded such that ~) although ShimCheong got to spend happy time with the king ~

    - 이 사실을 알게 되신 임금님 ~ (Things unfolded such that) The King who came to know this fact ~

    - 심봉사도 이 잔치 소식을 듣게 되어 궁을 찾아 왔습니다. Blind Shim too came to learn of this news about the feast, so he came to the palace.

    - 그렇게 효녀 심청과 아버지가 다시 만나게 되고 아버지 심봉사는 눈을 뜨게 되었습니다. (Things transpired and) Just in that way, Devoted Daughter ShimCheong and Father got to meet again, and her father Blind Shim got to see the world.

    - 사람들은 “극진한 효성은 바다도 하늘도 감동하지”라고 이야기하게 되었습니다. (Things unfolded such that) people now came to say that “Both the sea and the heaven are moved by devoted filial piety.”

    3. Level 3: Intro Clause + Body Clause: N1 이/가 -ㄴ데+그건N2이다

    • N1 이/가 –ㄴ데 + 그건 N2 이다 consists of two parts: first the introductory clause and then the body clause, which provides details or explanations for the introduction. The introductory clause prepares the reader/listener for the details or the explanations to come in the body clause. Here are examples taken from the Level 3 version:

    - 이 부부에게는 소원이 한 가지 있었는데 그건 아이를 하나 갖는 것이었습니다. For this couple, there was one wish, and it was to have a child.

    - 그러나 심청의 마음에 떠나지 않는 근심있었는데 그건 홀로 지내고 계실 눈 먼 아버지에 대한 생각이었습니다. But ShimCheong had a concern that wouldn’t leave her heart, and it was the thought of her blind father who must be living alone.

    - 나한테 단 하나의 소원이 있었는데 그건 이렇게 내 딸 얼굴 한 번 보는 것이었다. 그런데 그 날이 이렇게 올 줄이야! I had only one wish, and that was to see the face of my daughter once just like this. But who knew that the day would indeed come in this way!

    This page titled 3.5: Key Patterns and Forms is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by KyungAh Yoon (PDXOpen publishing initiative) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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