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2.6: Grammar- Gender and Number

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    120255
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    Gender

    Instructor Video: Gender

    In Hindi, nouns can be divided into two types of gender, namely पुलिंग “Masculine,” and स्त्रीलिंग “Feminine.” Like English, Hindi has natural gender such as boy and gild, man and woman. Unlike English though, Hindi has grammatical gender. For example: Book, table, etc, are female. Whereas, room, house, door, etc. are male.

    There is no certain rules to learn about gender assignment to particular noun in Hindi. Based on common observation, masculine and feminine nouns can be further classified in two subcategories as shown in the following table (1).

      Masculine Feminine
    Marked (Type 1) Nouns that ends in -आ “-aa.” Nouns that ends in -इ/ई “-i/ii.”
    Examples लड़का laRakaa “boy.”

    कमरा kamaraa “room.”

    बच्चा bachchaa“boy child.”

    दरवाज़ा darawaazaa “door.”

    लड़की laRakii “girl”

    बच्ची bachchii “girl child.”

    खिड़की khiRakii “window.”

    कुर्सी kursii “chair.”

    Unmarked (Type 2) Nouns that do not end in -आ “-aa.” Nouns that do not end in -इ/ई “-i/ii.
    Examples घर ghar “home.”

    फल phal “fruit.”

    सेब seb “apple.”

    पुस्तकालय pustakaalay “library.”

    किताब kitaab “book.”

    मेज़ mez “table.”

    तस्वीर taswiir “picture.”

    कमीज़ kamiiz “shirt.”

    Table 1. Sub-categories of Masculine and Feminine Gender

    But these rules have multiple exceptions such as:

    Nouns ending in -आ “-aa” but feminine.

    • माता maataa “mother.”
    • लता lataa “leaf,”
    • घटा ghaTaa “cloud”
    • दवा dawaa “medicine,” etc.

    Nouns ending in -इ/ई”-i/ii” but masculine.

    • साथी saathii “Friend.”
    • हाथी hathii “Elephant.”
    • विद्यार्थी vidyaarthii “Student” etc.

    Test Yourself

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    Number

    Instructor Video: Number

    Like English, Hindi has two numbers, namely, singular number, and plural number. To change singular nouns into plurals in Hindi, it is important to know the gender of the nouns and apply the following rules.

    • All marked masculine nouns (that end in -आ “-aa.”) change into -ए “-e.”
    • Unmarked masculine nouns (that do not end in -आ “-aa.”) do not change their form in plural.
    • All marked feminine nouns (that end in -इ/ई “i/ii.”) change into -इयाँ “-iyan.”
    • Unmarked feminine nouns (that do not end in -इ/ई “i/ii.”) change into -यें/एं “-yen.”

    The following table (2) summarizes these rules and shows examples.

      Masculine Feminine
    Marked (Type 1) Nouns that ends in -आ “-aa.” Nouns that ends in -इ/ई “-i/ii.”
    Rule for plural change -आ “-aa” into -ए “-e” change -इ/ई “-i/ii” into -इयाँ “-iyan”
    Examples लड़का – लड़के laRake “boys.”

    कमरा – कमरेkamare “rooms.”

    च्चा – बच्चेbachche “boy children.”

    दरवाज़ा – दरवाज़ेdarawaaze “door.s”

    लड़की – लड़कियाँ laRakyani “girls”

    च्ची – बच्चियाँbachchiyan “girl children.”

    खिड़की – खिड़कियाँkhiRakiyan “windows.”

    कुर्सी – कुर्सियाँkursiyan “chairs.”

    Unmarked (Type 2) Nouns that do not end in -आ “-aa.” Nouns that do not end in -इ/ई “-i/ii.
    Rule for plueal No changes in form change into -यें/एं “-yen.”
    Examples घर – घर ghar “homes.”

    फल – फल phal “fruits.”

    सेब – सेब seb “apples.”

    पुस्तकालय – पुस्तकालय pustakaalay “libraries.”

    किता – किताबें kitaaben “books.”

    मेज़ – मेजेंmezen “table.s”

    तस्वी – तस्वीरेंtaswiiren “pictures.”

    कमीज़ – कमीज़ेंkamiizen “shirts.”

    Table 2. Summary for rules to change singular to plural nouns based on the sub-categories of Masculine and Feminine Gender.

    Test yourself

    घर-गृहस्थी (House & household)

    Please learn these vocabulary and change them into plural.

    Singular Nouns gender Meaning Plural Nouns
    दीवार f. wall  
    दूध m. milk  
    मकान m. house  
    फ़र्श f. floor  
    कुर्सी f. chair  
    दरवाज़ा m. door  
    खिड़की f. window  
    छत f. roof, ceiling  
    गुसलख़ाना m. bathroom  
    तौलिया m. towel  
    तेल m. oil  
    साबुन m. soap  
    आईना /शीशा m. mirror  
    कंघी f. comb  
    अलमारी f. cupboard, wardrobe, shelf  
    खाट f. cot  
    पलंग m. bed  
    चादर m. sheet  
    रज़ाई f. quilt  
    कंबल m. blanket  
    तकिया m. pillow  
    लैंप m. lamp  
    बल्ब m. bulb  
    घड़ी f. watch, clock  
    चाकू m. knife  
    तस्वीर f. picture, photograph  
    कैलेंडर   calendar  
    थैला m. bag  
    मोमबत्ती f. candle  
    इस्तरी f. iron  
    रसोई f. kitchen  
    कटोरा m. big bowl  
    कटोरी f. small bowl  
    थाली f. metal plate  
    बर्तन m. utensil  
    कड़ाही f. a frying pan, wok  
    गिलास m. glass  
    चूल्हा m. stove  
    चाबी f. key  
    ताला m. lock  
    चिमटा m. tongs  
    पतीला m. cooking vessel  
    तवा m. skillet  
    चकला m. rolling board  
    चौकी f. rolling board  
    प्याला m. cup  
    झाडू f. broom  
    परदा m. curtain  
    टोपी f. cap  
    मोज़ा m. socks  
    रूमाल m. handkerchief  

    Vocabulary 5. Names of Fruits and Vegetables

    फलों के नाम “Names of fruits”
    20200629_174803-150x150.jpg Mango_1-150x150.jpg 20200629_174054-150x150.jpg
    सेब m. apple आम m. mango केला m. banana
    20200629_174106-150x150.jpg Watermelon-150x150.jpg Pineapple-1-150x150.jpg
    संतरा m. orange तरबूज़ m. watermelon अनन्नास m. pineapple
    Papaya_1-150x150.jpg food_pomegranate_1-150x150.jpg food_grapes-2-150x150.jpg
    पपीता m. papaya अनार m. pomegranate अँगूर m. grapes
    सब्ज़ियों के नाम “Names of Vegetables”
    20200629_174246-150x150.jpg 20200629_174240-150x150.jpg 20200629_174332-150x150.jpg
    आलू m. potato प्याज m. onion टमाटर m. tomato
    20200629_174522-150x150.jpg 20200629_174700-150x150.jpg 20200629_174620-150x150.jpg
    पालक m. spinach मटर m. peas फूल गोभी f. cauliflower
    20200629_174637-150x150.jpg 20200629_174542-150x150.jpg 20200629_174142-150x150.jpg
    धनिया पत्ता गोभी f. cabbage बैंगन m. egg plant
    20200629_174203-150x150.jpg 20200629_174118-150x150.jpg 20200629_174320-150x150.jpg
    शिमला मिर्च f. bell pepper नींबू m. lemon खीरा m. cucumber

    Test Yourself

    True/False

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    Vocabulary Test

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    धन्यवाद!


    This page titled 2.6: Grammar- Gender and Number is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Rajiv Ranjan (Michigan State University Libraries) .

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