Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

4.2: Grammar

  • Page ID
    120429
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    Learning Objectives

    In this section

    • You will learn the difference between phrases and sentences.
    • You will practice comparative and superlative forms.
    • You will know how to use adverbs in different contexts.
    • You will learn how to form the future tense and talk about future plans.
    • You will create complex sentences using the structure of “because” and “because of.”

    Grammar (1)

    Definite and indefinite structures

    Study the following examples to distinguish between phrases and sentences.

    The winter is cold الشتاء بارد This is a cold winter هذا شتاء بارد
    I do not like the cold weather لا أحب الجو البارد The weather is cold in winter الجو بارد
    The new restaurant is excellent المطعم الجديد ممتاز This is a new restaurant هذا مطعم جديد

    Activity (4). Choose the right translation for each of the following sentences.

    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.

    Grammar (2)

    Comparatives and Superlatives

    Study the following examples:

    The weather in Chicago is colder than the weather in Texas     الجو في شيكاغو أبرد من الجو في تكساس
    New York city is bigger that Detroit city     مدينة نيويورك أكبر من مدينة ديترويت
    The weather in the Fall is nicer than the weather in the Spring     الطقس في الخريف ألطف من الطقس في الربيع
    The Arabic language book is easier than the history book     كتاب اللغة العربية أسهل من كتاب التاريخ
    My father’s car is smaller than my mother’s car     سيارة والدي أصغر من سيارة والدتي
    Sultan restaurant is the best restaurant in the city     مطعم (سلطان) هو أحسن مطعم في المدينة
    What is the biggest state in America?     ما هي أكبر ولاية في أمريكا؟

    The comparative form in Arabic is derived from the adjective in a predictable pattern as you see in the previous examples. In comparison, you should use the proposition من after the adjective while in the superlative form, you will use the identifier noun like in أحسن مطعم “best restaurant” and أكبر ولاية “biggest state”.

    Study the following table on comparative and superlative forms:

    [table id=40 /]

    Activity

    With your classmates. Create comparative sentences using the following prompts.

    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.
    Activity

    Survey: Ask your classmates and then report your findings to class.

    في رأيك …؟ بالنسبة لك …؟

    (1) ما هي أحسن جامعة في العالم؟

    (2) ما هي أبرد ولاية في أمريكا؟

    (3) ما هو أحسن فيلم هذه السنة؟

    (4) ما هو أصعب يوم في الأسبوع؟

    (5) ما هو أحسن مطعم في المدينة؟

    (6) ما هي أجمل مدينة في أمريكا؟

    (7) من أحسن ممثل/ ممثلة actor في هوليوود؟

    Grammar (3)

    Adverbs

    Study the following list of adverbs

    [table id=37 /]

    Grammar notes

    The adverb in Arabic is usually derived from the adjective by adding a Tanween in the end. They describe the degree, frequency, or manner of the verb. Note the difference between these sentences.

    خالد يذاكر جيّداً

    Khalid studies well

    خالد طالب جيّد

    Khalid is a good student

    آكل الدجاج كثيراً

    I eat chicken a lot

    آكل دجاج كثير

    I eat a lot of chicken

    هل تسكن قريباً؟

    Do you live nearby?

    هل تسكن في بيت قريب ؟

    Do you live in a nearby house?

    • You note that the adjective describes the noun while the adverb describes the verb.
    • Some adverbs describe adjectives as well like جداً “very” or أيضاً “also”.
    • Adverbs usually come after adjectives or verbs but some of them can freely move around the sentence like دائماً “always,” أحياناً “sometimes,” and عادةً “usually”.
    • The following expressions are equivalent:
    كُل يوم يومياً
    كُلّ أسبوع أسبوعياً
    في الصيف صيفاً
    في النهار نهاراً
    في الليل ليلاً
    Activity

    Choose the appropriate adjective that best fits in each of the following sentences

    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.
    Activity

    Find someone who. Survey your classmates to know if they do these activities. Report your findings to class in complete sentences.

    (1) Travels in the summer? Where? هل تسافر/ تسافرين صيفاً؟ أين؟
    (2) Works at daytime? ……………………………………………………………
    (3) Watches TV sometimes? ……………………………………………………………
    (4) Studies well at the library? ……………………………………………………………
    (5) Reads at night? ……………………………………………………………
    (6) Lives nearby? ……………………………………………………………
    (7) Goes to classes daily? ……………………………………………………………
    (8) Eats chicken a lot ……………………………………………………………
    (9) Very tired? ……………………………………………………………
    (10) Always busy? ……………………………………………………………
    (11) Speaks a lot with friends? ……………………………………………………………
    (12) Sleeps late? ……………………………………………………………

    Grammar (4)

    Future Tense

    Future tense in Arabic is formulated by adding the prefix ســ or the separate word سوف in front of a present tense verb. They can be used interchangeably. The use of سوف can imply a further distant and unplanned future while the use of سـ can be more immediate future. The negation of the future is formed by adding the word لَن before the present tense while removing the future marker.

    • Common words and phrases that mark the future tense include:
    tomorrow غداً
    the day after tomorrow بعد غد
    the coming week الأسبوع القادم
    the coming month الشهر القادم
    the coming year السنة القادمة
    the coming summer الصيف القادم
    God willing إن شاء الله

    Practice the verb “will travel” and its negation form:

    [table id=41 /]

    Activity

    Fill in the blanks with the appropriate future verb using the root clues provided between brackets.

    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.
    Activity

    Ask your classmates about their future plans then report your findings to class. You can use the following prompts.

    [table id=42 /]

    Grammar (5)

    “Because/Because of” Sentences

    To express reason, you can use either لأنّ or بِسبب. These are used differently as لأنّ “because” should be followed by a complete sentence while بِسبب “because of” is followed by a noun or a nominal phrase but should not be a full sentence. Study the differences between these pairs of sentences:

    لا أحب الشتاء لأنّ الجو بارد

    I do not like winter because the weather is cold

    لا أحب الشتاء بسبب الجو البارد

    I do not like winter because of the cold weather

    (1)

    أذهب إلى الجامعة يومياً لأنّ عندي فصول

    I go to university daily because I have classes

    أذهب إلى الجامعة يومياً بسبب الفصول

    I go to university daily because of classes

    (2)

    أختي تسكن في شيكاغو لأنّها تدرس في الجامعة

    My sister lives in Chicago because she studies in the university

    أختي تسكن في شيكاغو بسبب الدراسة

    My sister lives in Chicago because of study

    (3)

    Grammar notes

    Note that لأنّ merges with the following pronoun, in which case is an object pronoun. Study the following table:

    لأنّها لأن + هي لأنّي لأن + أنا
    لأنّنا لأن + نحن لأنّكَ لأن + أنتَ
    لأنّكم لأن + أنتم لأنّكِ لأن + أنتِ
    لأنّهم لأن + هم لأنّه لأن + هو
    Activity

    Use بسبب or لأنّ to best complete the sentences below.

    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.
    Activity

    Write complete sentences using لأنّ or بسبب guided by picture and vocabulary clues.

    1- أصحابي – مكتبة – امتحان

    students working together

    2-طلاب – فصل – كورونا

    empty classroom

    3-السكن – آلاسكا – الثلج

    snowy area

    4-كلية الهندسة – يعمل – مهندس

    construction worker

    5-السفر – فلوريدا – ديزني

    universal studios

    Activity

    Ask your classmates questions in Arabic using لماذا and report your findings to class. You can use the following prompts.

    1. Why do you study Arabic?
    2. Where do you like to travel? Why?
    3. In what area do you live? Do you like it? Why?
    4. Where do you like to work? Why?
    5. What is the best season in your opinion? Why?
    6. Where do you want to live in the future? Why?

    Key Takeaways

    • You can compare and contrast and express preferences.
    • You can express reason or purpose in complex sentences.

    This page titled 4.2: Grammar is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Ayman Mohamed and Sadam Issa (Michigan State University Libraries) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

    • Was this article helpful?