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14.7: Key Terms

  • Page ID
    236616
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    apartheid
    a South African policy of racial segregation that ended in 1991
    Berlin Airlift
    an operation carried out by Great Britain and the United States to supply West Berlin from the air during the Soviet Union’s blockade of West Berlin
    bloc
    a group of countries united for a common purpose
    Cold War
    a contest for ideological, social, economic, technological, and military supremacy between the United States and the Soviet Union
    containment
    the West’s Cold War policy goal of confining communism to the Soviet Union and the nations of Eastern Europe
    Cuban Missile Crisis
    the 1962 confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba
    détente
    the relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1970s
    domino theory
    the belief that the neighbors of a communist country were likely to become communist themselves
    glasnost
    a Soviet policy encouraging openness, which allowed those who were angry to be critical of the government
    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    the 1964 resolution that gave President Lyndon Johnson permission to retaliate against North Vietnamese attacks and to act first to defend U.S. lives
    Marshall Plan
    a plan extending financial assistance to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II
    Non-Aligned Movement
    a movement of nations that sought to remain outside the sphere of influence of both the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    a military alliance among the United States, Canada, and the countries of Western Europe
    perestroika
    the restructuring of the Soviet state and economy under Mikhail Gorbachev
    proxy wars
    wars fought by allies of the Soviet Union and the United States to avoid risking a direct conflict between the two superpowers during the Cold War
    satellite state
    a country controlled by another nation
    Truman Doctrine
    the promise of U.S. assistance to any country in danger of being overthrown by communism
    Warsaw Pact
    a military and political alliance among the communist nations of Eastern Europe

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