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3.12: Sources

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    1 di Cosmo, Ancient China and its Enemies, chapter 4, pp. 128-153.

    2 Thanks to Yanxing Liu for these specifics. She cites Huang Zhanyue 黃展越, 古代人牲人殉通論 (On Ancient Chinese Immolation). The royal palace in the state of Qin, inhabited for nearly 300 years, the Dazheng palace, was also discovered by archaeologists in 2012, so we may learn more soon.

    3 Li Feng, Early China, 234-35

    4 Lander, “Environmental China and the Rise of the Qin Empire,” 252.

    5 Camara, Is There a Distinctively African Way of Knowing?, 9.

    6 Cotterell, The First Emperor of China.

    7 Lander, “Environmental China and the Rise of the Qin Empire,” 243-6.

    8 Translated in Kleeman, Great Perfection, pp. 119-120, note 15.

    9 Quoted in Whiting, “A Long View of Resilience in the Chengdu Plain, China,” p. 261.

    10 Li Feng, Early China, 171-75.

    11 From Hou Han Shu, quoted in Kleeman, Great Perfection, p. 119, note 14.

    12 Hulsewé, Remnants of Ch’in Law, first page of the translation.

    13 Sanft, “Notes on Penal Ritual and Subjective Truth under the Qin.”

    14 Sima Qian, Shi ji 6/241; Puett, To Become a God, 225.

    15 Von Glahn, The Economic History of China, 99-100.

    16 Galambos, “The Myth of the Qin Unification of Writing in Han Sources” and Charles Sanft, personal communication.

    17 Sanft, Communication and Cooperation, 59, but my translation based on his.


    I hypothesize that the straight lines and corners here were left by the edges of stamps used to stamp the characters into the clay molds. Each seal apparently held four characters.

    This page titled 3.12: Sources is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Sarah Schneewind (eScholarship) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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