- The verb stem (VS) is the part that comes before –다 in the verb infinitive, a.k.a. the ‘dictionary form.’
- The general rule for the verb continuative stem (VCS), a.k.a. the 아/어 form: If the last syllable in the verb stem (VS) has a vowel ㅏ or ㅗ, add 아 to the stem. If the last syllable in the VS has a vowel other than ㅏ or ㅗ, add 어 . There are exceptions to this rule, but we’ll focus on the general rules and cover the basics in this lesson.
- Past tense in the informal-polite form: Add ㅆ어요 to VCS = VCS+ㅆ어요
- Here is a table with some of the verbs in the story. What is in the parentheses shows vowel contractions, some deviations, or exceptions to the general rule described above:
- Verbs in Dictionary Form
- Past Tense (VCS+ ㅆ어요 )
( ㅏ + ㅏ ㅏ )
- 살았어 요
- N 이다
- N 이어 ; N 여
- N 이었어요 ; N 였어요
( ㅏ + ㅡ + ㅓ = ㅏ + ㅏ )
( ㅣ + ㅓ ㅕ )
- ( ㅡ + ㅡ + ㅓ = ㅡ + ㅓ )
( ㅐ + ㅓ ㅐ )
( 하 + ㅏ 해 )
( ㅜ + ㅓ = ㅝ )
( ㅜ + ㅓ = ㅝ )
( ㅚ + ㅓ ㅙ )
- 되었어요 / 됐어요
- 부러뜨리 다
( ㅣ + ㅓ ㅕ )
- ( 하 + ㅏ 해 )
- In Korean, a noun modifier precedes the noun it modifies and gives it a description. In writing, don’t forget to leave space between the modifier and the noun.
- When forming a noun modifier from a verb, consider: 1) whether the given verb is a descriptive or an action verb; and 2) the tense. Then add the appropriate form to its verb stem (VS) as presented in the table:
AVS + 는
AVS + ㄹ/을
DVS + ㄴ/은
DVS + ㄹ/을
- Here are example phrases from Version 2 of the story. The underlined part modifies the noun in green:
- 마음씨 나쁜 놀부: NolBu who is mean-spirited
- 마음씨 착한 흥부: HeungBu who is kind-hearted
- 흥부집 처마에 집을 짓고 사는 제비: a swallow that has built a home under the eaves of HeungBu’s home and is living (there)
- 고마운 제비: a swallow who is grateful
- 잘 익은 박: a gourd which is very ripe
- 부자가 된 흥부: HeungBu who became rich
- 흥부의 소식을 들은 놀부: NolBu who heard the news of HeungBu
- 이 소식을 들은 흥부: HeungBu who heard this news
- Examples for Action Verbs in Different Tenses :
Ex 1> 갖다주다to bring and give
친구한테 갖다줬어요. 책이에요. 친구한테 갖다준 책이에요.
I brought it to my friend. It’s a book. It’s a book that I brought to my friend.
친구한테 갖다줘요. 책이에요. 친구한테 갖다주는 책이에요.
I bring it to my friend. It’s a book. It’s a book that I bring to my friend.
친구한테 갖다줄 거예요. 책이에요. 친구한테 갖다줄 책이에요.
I’ll bring it to my friend. It’s a book. It’s a book that I’ll bring to my friend.
Ex 2> 쓰다to write
제가 썼어요. 리포트예요. 제가 쓴 리포트예요.
I wrote it. It’s a report.
It’s a report I wrote.
제가 써요. 리포트예요. 제가 쓰는 리포트예요.
I write it. It’s a report. It’s a report I write.
제가 쓸 거예요. 리포트예요. 제가 쓸 리포트예요.
I will write it. It’s a report. It’s a report I will write.
Ex 3> 읽다 to read
제가 어제 읽었어요. 잡지예요. 제가 어제 읽은 리포트예요.
I read it yesterday. It’s a magazine.
It’s a magazine I read yesterday.
제가 매달 읽어요. 잡지에요. 제가 매달 읽는 잡지예요 .
I read it every month. It’s a magazine.
It’s a magazine I read every month.
제가 다음달에 읽을 거예요. 잡지에요. 제가 다음달에 읽을 잡지예요.
I will read it next month. It’s a magazine. It’s a magazine I will read next month.
Ex 4> 익다 to be cooked; to become ripe
잘 익었어요. 김치예요. -> 잘 익은 김치예요 .
It’s been well fermented. It’s Kimchi. -> It’s Kimchi that’s been well fermented.
잘 익어요. 김치예요. -> 잘 익는 김치예요 .
It’s being well fermented. It’s Kimchi. -> It’s Kimchi that’s being well fermented.
잘 익을 거예요. 김치예요. -> 잘 익을 김치예요 .
It will be well fermented. It’s Kimchi. -> It’s Kimchi that will be well fermented.
Examples for Descriptive Verbs in Different Tenses :
Ex 1> 유명하다 to be famous
유명한 사람이에요. He is a famous person.
유명한 사람이었어요. He was a famous person.
유명하던 사람이에요. He is a person who used to be famous.
유명하던 사람이었어요. He was a person who used to be famous.
유명할 사람이에요. He is a person who will be famous.
Ex 2> 좋다 to be good; to be nice
*The sententences below may sound awkward. They are presented to highlight the
grammar point being discussed.
좋은 날씨예요. It is nice weather.
좋은 날씨였어요. It was nice weather.
좋던 날씨예요. (It is) the weather that used to be nice.
좋던 날씨였어요. (It was) the weather that used to be nice.
좋을 날씨예요. It is the weather that will be nice.
- Examples for Irregular Action Verbs in Different Tenses :
- In the sections below, study the changes for a few basic action verbs that are irregular:
ㄷ-irregular verbs: 듣다 to listen; to hear
사람이에요. 한국 노래를 들었어요 . 한국 노래를 들은 사람이에요 .
(S/he) is a person. He listened to Korean songs. (S/he) is a person who listened to Korean songs.
사람이에요. 한국 노래를 들어요. 한국 노래를 듣는 사람이에요 .
(S/he) is a person. He listens to Korean songs. (S/he) is a person who listens to Korean songs.
사람이에요. 한국 노래를 들을 거예요. 한국 노래를 들을 사람이에요 .
(S/he) is a person. He will listen to Korean songs. (S/he) is a person who will listen to Korean songs.
ㄹ-irregular verbs: 알다 to know
사람이에요. 알아요. 아는 사람이에요 .
(S/he) is a person. I know. (S/he) is a person I know.
사람이에요. 알 거예요. 알 사람이에요 .
(S/he) is a person. I will know. (S/he) is a person I’ll (get to) know.
Examples for Irregular Descriptive Verbs in Present Tense
In the sections below, study the changes for a few basic descriptive verbs that are irregular:
ㄹ-irregular verbs: 달다 to be sweet / 멀다 to be far
후식이에요. 아주 달아요. 아주 단 후식이에요 .
It’s a dessert. It’s very sweet. -> It’s a very sweet dessert.
친구 집이에요. 멀어요. 먼 친구 집이에요 .
It’s my friend’s house. It’s far. It’s my friend’s house that is far.
ㅂ-irregular verbs: 맵다to be spicy / 싱겁다to be bland / 뜨겁다to be hot /
춥다to be cold / 가볍다to be light (weight)
음식이에요. 매워요. 매운 음식이에요 .
It’ s food. It ’s spicy. It’s spicy food.
반찬이에요. 싱거워요. 싱거운 반찬이에요 .
They are side dishes. They are bland.
They are bland side dishes.
차예요. 뜨거워요. 뜨거운 차예요 .
It’s tea. It’s hot. It’s hot tea.
날씨예요. 추워요. 추운 날씨예요.
It’s weather. It’
It’s cold weather.
가방이에요. 가벼워요. 가벼운 가방이에요.
It’s a bag. It’s light. -> It’s a light bag.
to be this way
to be blue
to be red
음식이에요. 이래요. 이런 음식이에요.
s food. It
’s like this.
It’s this kind of food.
셔츠예요. 파래요. 파란 셔츠예요.
It’s a shirt. It’ s blue. It’s a blue shirt.
의자예요. 빨개요. 빨간 의자예요.
It’ s a chair. It ’s red. It’s a red chair.
- For indirect discourse, we first need to be clear about the intention of the original speaker you are quoting: whether s/he intended to make a statement, to ask a question, to command/demand, or to propose to do something. Here is a summary of the forms to use for different intentions of the original speech:
Intention of the original speech
“to say –”
- Here are example sentences and phrases from Version 3 of the story:
- “못된 형 놀부는 마음씨 착한 흥부와 가족을 집에서 나가라고 하면서 쫓아냈습니다. ”
- The mean-spirited brother NolBu kicked them out, telling kind-hearted Heungbu and his family to leave the house.
“흥부와 흥부 식구들은 빨리 나으라고 하면서 정성스럽게 다리를 치료해 주고 돌봐주었습니다.”
- HeungBu and his family told (the swallow) to get well soon, and treated her leg wholeheartedly and took care of her.
- “흥부가 부자가 되었다는 소식을 들은 놀부”
- NolBu who heard the news that HeungBu became rich
- “도깨비한테서 벌을 받고 거지가 됐다는 놀부의 소식을 들은 착한 동생 흥부 ~”
- HeungBu who heard the news that NolBu was punished by goblins and became a beggar ~
- “자기 집으로 같이 가자고 했습니다.”
- He proposed that they go to his house.
- Let’s take a closer look and see how we form the indirect discourse with more examples:
Intention of the original speech
“to say –”
화요일일 거냐고 해요.
전화 아니냐고 해요.
전화 아니었냐고 해요.
전화 아닐 거냐고 해요.