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Chapter 7: Kingdoms and Dynasties (500 CE – 1000 CE)

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    • 7.1: Regional configurations of historical territories (500 CE – 1000 CE)
      China's peaceful unity ended in 220 CE leading to a period of warfare. Buddhism spread from India, influencing Chinese culture. Korea and Japan were influenced by Chinese and Korean culture, respectively. The Gupta empire in India rose and fell by 500 CE. India shifted its trade focus from the Roman Empire to Southeast Asia and China.
    • 7.2: Early Medieval Empires of India (550 CE – 1200 CE)
      The golden age of ancient India, known as the early medieval period, commenced around 550 following the decline of the Gupta Empire. Several smaller empires, like the Pala Empire and the Chola Empire, emerged in the region throughout this era. These empires were governed by diverse dynasties and leaders who would often engage in conflicts with each other but also occasionally extend support to their neighboring territories.
    • 7.3: Tibetan Empire (618 CE – 842 CE)
      The Tibetan Empire was vast and extended across southern, eastern, and central Asia. Emperor Songsten Gampo initially unified the region. The terrain in the region was rugged, lacked cohesive transportation, and was ruled by competitive districts before King Gampo. As part of consolidating territory, the emperor controlled the Chinese trade routes.
    • 7.4: Tang Dynasty (618 CE – 906 CE)
      The Tang dynasty was in power from 618 to 907 and developed into a time historians consider the high point of Chinese history. The dynasty's military conquests were extensive, and the dynasty developed into a very cosmopolitan culture. At one point, almost 50 million people lived within the dynasty's borders, with Chang'an as the capital. Creativity flourished, and prosperity grew based on robust trade from the Silk Road and the stimulus from foreign traders and other unique cultures.
    • 7.5: Kingdom of Champa (192 CE -1832 CE)
      Initially, the South China Sea was called the Champa Sea, named for the empire that controlled central Vietnam and included parts of eastern Cambodia and Laos. The kingdom’s peak was from the 6th to the 15th centuries when it was controlled by multiple rulers in different provinces. Artifacts attributed to the Chams were found to date back to the second century CE. The Cham had trade routes extending into China, Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries, in the Maritime Silk Road routes.
    • 7.6: Asuka, Nara, and Heian Periods (538 CE – 1185 CE)
      The first significant historical era was based on the Asuka period and was located in the region of previously existing court officials. During this time, Buddhism was introduced to the country, which was different from the Shinto religions existing in the country. There was a substantial amount of contact with people from Korea and China who brought the concepts of Buddhism with them. The immigrants also had new ideas of building, art, and governmental procedures.