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Chapter 3: Bronze Age (2000 BCE – 500 BCE)

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    • 3.1: Regional Configurations of Historical Territories
      This time frame was a significant change as cultures moved from hunter-gatherers and users of stone and bone implements to the time of settled civilizations and bronze technology. Other features of the period were findings of writing and traces of urbanization. Civilizations were included in the Bronze Age if they smelt copper and added other alloyed metals or if they traded for bronze implements.
    • 3.2: Bronze Age- Xia Dynasty (2070 BCE – 1600 BCE)
      Although the Xia Dynasty is listed as the first unified dynasty, many scholars today doubt its existence, and the concepts are still debated. The Shang Dynasty was the first documented dynasty and taking the census was a common event in ancient China. The early population numbers were between 10 and 20 million from 2000 BCE to 200 BCE.
    • 3.3: Bronze Age - Shang Dynasty (1600 BCE – 1046 BCE)
      The Shang dynasty set itself apart from other cultures by using tin and copper alloy to create magnificent vessels for rituals and ancestor worship, which became a symbol of a ruler's wealth and influence. The Shang made significant contributions to future civilizations, including the invention of writing, the use of bronze weapons, and the implementation of chariots for warfare.
    • 3.4: Bronze Age- Western Zhou Dynasty (1046 BCE – 771 BCE)
      The Shang dynasty saw great prosperity until the ninth emperor, after which corruption and unrest plagued the country. The final Shang emperor lived in luxury and tortured the people, ultimately dividing the nobility. The Zhou dynasty, formerly an ally of the Shang, rose under King Wu's leadership and united the people and surrounding tribes. Wu's triumph led to the establishment of the Western Zhou dynasty, which endured from 1046 to 771 BCE.
    • 3.5: Bronze Age- Gojoseon - Korea (2333 BCE – 108 BCE)
      During the Bronze Age, different clans began to merge into larger groups. The tribes established Gojoseon, considered the first recognizable state of Korea. The various factions theoretically defined Dangun Wanggeom as the political and spiritual leader. Some accounts of the period demonstrate that the people believed in the King of Heaven, and bears were the object of worship.
    • 3.6: Bronze Age- The Indo-Aryan Migration (1800-1500 BCE)
      The Vedic Period began after large numbers of people moved from Mesopotamia into the Indus Valley and Ganges Plain. Many of the people spoke Indo-European languages and were deemed Aryans. From 1800 to 1500 BCE, the Indo-Aryans developed small agricultural communities with domesticated animals. The communities were spread across different regions in migrations of small groups that continued over a long period of time and not one major invasion.
    • 3.7: Bronze Age- Ban Chiang – Thailand (About 2000 BCE – 200 CE)
      Ban Chiang and another site, Non Nok Tha, became the representatives of how the people of the Bronze Age lived and worked. Previously, historians believed the people of Southeast Asia were only extensions of ideas from India and China. The discoveries at Ban Chiang demonstrate the early evidence of farming and the manufacture and use of metals.
    • 3.8: Bronze Age- Early Religions (Est. dates) (Vedic 1500-500 BCE, Hinduism 1500 BCE, Buddhism 500 BCE)
      Throughout the Vedic Period, which lasted from 1700-600 BCE, various tribes migrated across different regions, establishing larger political entities and advancing the Vedic religion. The Kuru Kingdom in northern India was the first significant group to establish a society at the state level.