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Humanities LibreTexts

12.1: Overview

  • Page ID
    64725
  • Art movements became fleeting moments in time…

    The world was engaged in world war and localized civil wars in the early part of the 20th century, generating a turbulent time for art. Established territories were realigned, only to be redefined again after the second world war. The 20th-century modern art movement was a liberation of communication in art, depicting art as what 'you don't' see instead of the reality right in front of you. Modern art became a 'free for all,' artists were free to use any color to represent anything; the object of modern art was to paint an interpretation instead of authenticity. Distortion of people and objects became the artistic, political statement and emphasized the abnormal. Evolving on the heels of the Post-impressionism movement, which had liberated art from the traditional rules, the philosophy driving the modern art movement was the spirit of experimentation and innovation.

    It was a time of experimentation, and artists used wild brush strokes, vibrant colors, overlapping lines, and unnatural positions, all abstracted into a painting. Artists tried to invoke emotions instead of realistic images. Materials moved beyond paint and canvas, introducing the concept of collage, adding fragmented pieces of paper or other material producing a layered look. Out of the industrial revolution came synthetic plastics bringing new chemicals to produce dyes, paper, textiles, and architectural constructions.

    Chapter 12, The Modern Art Movement (1900 CE – 1930 CE), covers the paintings of the new ideas, discussing the work of the many artists who influenced modern art.

    Movement

    Time Frame

    Starting Location

    American Modernism

    1900 – 1930s

    United States

    Fauvism

    1900 – 1935

    France

    Expressionism

    1905 – 1930

    Germany

    Cubism

    1907 – 1914

    France

    Dada

    1916 – 1930

    Switzerland

    The Bauhaus

    1919 – 1933

    Germany

    Harlem Renaissance

    1920 – 1930s

    Canada

    Canadian Group of Seven

    1920 – 1933

    United States

    Artists expanded the concepts of art experimenting with the ideas they were expressing, not the concepts of reality but their inner visualizations. Others were rebelling against racism, celebrating their ideas and lives, or building new architectural models.

    Artist

    Approx.

    Birth

    Movement

    Georgia O’Keeffe

    1887

    American Modernism

    Edward Hopper

    1882

    American Modernism

    Thomas Hart Benton

    1889

    American Modernism

    Henry Ossawa Tanner

    1859

    American Modernism

    Marion Hasbrouck Beckett

    1886

    American Modernism

    Henri Matisse

    1869

    Fauvism

    Albert Marquet

    1875

    Fauvism

    Amedeo Modigliani

    1884

    Fauvism

    Alice Bailly

    1872

    Fauvism

    Natalia Goncharova

    1881

    Fauvism

    Franz Marc

    1880

    Expressionism

    Paul Klee

    1879

    Expressionism

    Gabriele Münter

    1877

    Expressionism

    Emil Nolde

    1867

    Expressionism

    Otto Muller

    1874

    Expressionism

    Marianne von Werefkin

    1860

    Expressionism

    Paula Modersohn-Becker

    1876

    Expressionism

    Pablo Picasso

    1881

    Cubism

    Georges Braque

    1882

    Cubism

    Juan Gris

    1887

    Cubism

    Fernand Léger

    1881

    Cubism

    Maria Blanchard

    1881

    Cubism

    Lyubov Popova

    1889

    Cubism

    Jean Arp

    1886

    Dada

    Hannah Hoch

    1889

    Dada

    Sophie Taeuber-Arp

    1889

    Dada

    Walter Gropius

    1883

    The Bauhaus

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

    1886

    The Bauhaus

    Peter Behrens

    1868

    The Bauhaus

    William Johnson

    1901

    Harlem Renaissance

    Jacob Lawrence

    1917

    Harlem Renaissance

    Charles Henry Alston

    1907

    Harlem Renaissance

    Aaron Douglas

    1899

    Harlem Renaissance

    Sargent Claude Johnson

    1888

    Harlem Renaissance

    Laura Wheeler Waring

    1887

    Harlem Renaissance

    Archibald John Motley Jr.

    1891

    Harlem Renaissance

    James Richmond Barthé

    1901

    Harlem Renaissance

    A. Y. Jackson

    1882

    Canadian Group of Seven

    James MacDonald

    1873

    Canadian Group of Seven

    Thomas Thomson

    1877

    Canadian Group of Seven

    Emily Carr

    1871

    Canadian Group of Seven

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