# 4.5: Las conjugaciones del presente del subjuntivo

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$

$$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$

$$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}$$ $$\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}$$ $$\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}$$ $$\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}$$ $$\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}$$ $$\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}$$ $$\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}$$ $$\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}$$ $$\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}$$ $$\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}$$ $$\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}$$ $$\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}$$ $$\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}$$ $$\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}$$ $$\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}$$ $$\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}$$ $$\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}$$ $$\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}$$ $$\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}$$ $$\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}$$ $$\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}$$ $$\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}$$ $$\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}$$ $$\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}$$ $$\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}$$ $$\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}$$ $$\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}$$ $$\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}$$ $$\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}$$ $$\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}$$ $$\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}$$ $$\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}$$ $$\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}$$ $$\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}$$ $$\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}$$ $$\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}$$ $$\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lt}{<}$$ $$\newcommand{\gt}{>}$$ $$\newcommand{\amp}{&}$$ $$\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}$$

## Conjugations of the present subjunctive

The grammatical tenses that we have studied so far are in the indicative mood, except all the commands. The indicative mood is used to discuss facts or real information and to present them objectively. However, the subjunctive mood is used to express attitudes towards events and actions.

Like the indicative mood, the subjunctive mood has tenses: present, past, and future. In this lesson, we are going to learn how the present subjunctive is formed. We are going to conjugate regular verbs, stem-changing verbs, and irregular verbs in the present subjunctive.

### Regular Verbs

Follow these steps to conjugate in the present subjunctive:

1. Conjugate the verb in the "yo" form in the present tense of the indicative.
2. Drop the final “-o”.

#### "-ar" verbs

New endings for "-ar" verbs: -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en. In the chart below, the verb "hablar" is used as an example of how to conjugate verbs ending in "-ar". Note that all new endings are indicated in bold.

Subject pronoun New endings Conjugated verb

Yo

-e

hable

-es

hables

Ud., él, ella

-e

hable

Nosotros, nosotras

-emos

hablemos

Vosotros, vosotras

-éis

habléis

Uds., ellos, ellas

-en

hablen

#### "-er" verbs and "-ir" verbs

New endings for "-er" and "-ir" verbs: -a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an. In the chart below, the verbs "comer" and "abrir" are used as examples of how to conjugate verbs ending in "-er" and "-ir". Note that all new endings are indicated in bold.

Subject pronoun New endings Conjugation of "-er" ending verbs Conjugation of "-ir" ending verbs

Yo

-a

coma

abra

-as

comas

abras

Ud., él, ella

-a

coma

abra

Nosotros, nosotras

-amos

comamos

abramos

Vosotros, vosotras

-áis

comáis

abráis

Uds., ellos, ellas

-an

coman

abran

### Verbs that end in "-car", "-gar", "-zar"

Verbs ending in "-car", "-gar", and "-zar" have a spelling change when conjugated in the present subjunctive: -car → -que, -gar → -gue, -zar → -ce

Note: "Empezar" is a verb that ends in "-zar" and it is also a stem-changing verb. The stem-change occurs in all conjugations, except in the "nosotros" and "vosotros" forms. Note that the stem-change in the conjugations of "empezar" is noted in blue.

Subject pronouns New endings Conjugation: verbs ending in "-car" Conjugation: verbs ending in "-gar" Conjugation: verbs ending in "-zar"

Yo

-e

saque

llegue

empiece

-es

saques

llegues

empieces

Ud., él, ella

-e

saque

llegue

empiece

Nosotros, nosotras

-emos

saquemos

lleguemos

empecemos

Vosotros, vosotras

-éis

saquéis

lleguéis

empecéis

Uds., ellos, ellas

-en

saquen

lleguen

empiecen

### Stem-changing verbs with "-ar" and "-er" verbs

Stem-changing verbs ending in "-ar" and "-er" have the same stem-change as the present indicative conjugations. All stem-changes are indicated in blue in the conjugation chart below.

Subject pronoun

Subjunctive endings for

"-ar"

Cerrar

Cierr-

Contar

Cuent-

Subjunctive endings for

"-er"

Querer

Quier-

Poder

Pued-

Yo

-e

cierre

cuente

-a

quiera

pueda

-es

cierres

cuentes

-as

quieras

puedas

Ud., él, ella

-e

cierre

cuente

-a

quiera

pueda

Nosotros, nosotras

-emos

cerremos

contemos

-amos

queramos

podamos

Vosotros, vosotras

-éis

cerréis

contéis

-áis

queráis

podáis

Uds., ellos, ellas

-en

cierren

cuenten

-an

quieran

puedan

#### Stem-changing verbs ending in "-ir"

Stem-changing verbs ending in "-ir" will undergo a stem-change from “e” to “i”, and “o” to “u” in the "nosotros" and "vosotros" conjugations, as shown in the chart below in the conjugations of "preferir" and "dormir". All stem-changes are indicated in blue in the conjugation chart below.

Subject pronoun

Subjunctive endings for

"-ir"

Preferir

Prefier-

Prefier-

Prefir-

Dormir

Duerm-

Duerm-

Durm-

Pedir

Ped-

Pid-

Seguir

Segu-

Sig-
("sigo")

Decir

Dec-

Dig-
("digo")

Yo

-a

prefiera

duerma

pida

siga

diga

-as

prefieras

duermas

pidas

sigas

digas

Ud., él, ella

-a

prefiera

duerma

pida

siga

diga

Nosotros, nosotras

-amos

prefiramos

durmamos

pidamos

sigamos

digamos

Vosotros, vosotras

-áis

prefiráis

durmáis

pidáis

sigáis

digáis

Uds., ellos, ellas

-an

prefieran

duerman

pidan

sigan

digan

### Irregular verbs

There are six irregular verbs in the present subjunctive. To remember these verbs use the mnemonic device DISHES.

Subject pronoun

Dar

Ir

Ser

Haber

Estar

Saber

Yo

vaya

sea

haya

esté

sepa

des

vayas

seas

hayas

estés

sepas

Ud., él, ella

vaya

sea

haya

esté

sepa

Nosotros, nosotras

demos

vayamos

seamos

hayamos

estemos

sepamos

Vosotros, vosotras

deis

vayáis

seáis

hayáis

estéis

sepáis

Uds., ellos, ellas

den

vayan

sean

hayan

estén

sepan