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10.4: En la oficina del médico - imperativo de ustedes

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    Síntomas y enfermedades

    dolor de cabeza headache
    dolor de estómago stomacheache
    dolor de garganta sore throat
    la fiebre fever
    las náuseas nausea
    la tos cough

    estar resfriad@ / acatarrad@ / constipad@

    tener catarro / resfriado

    to have a cold
    resfriarse, acatarrarse, constiparse (reflexivos) to catch a cold
    tener la gripe to have the flu
    enfermarse (reflexivo) to get sick
    el COVID  


    torcerse el tobillo to twist one´s ankle
    quemarse to burn oneself
    romperse / quebrarse un hueso to break a bone
    caerse to fall

      Tratamientos (treatments)

    tomar medicina  
    comer bien  

    tomar mucho líquido

    mantenerse hidratado

    poner una venda to put a bandage on
    poner una tirita to put a band-aid on 
    tomarse la temperatura to take one´s temperature


    Diálogo \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Doctor: ¿Cómo está Usted?

    Paciente: No me siento muy bien.

    Doctor: ¿Cuáles son sus síntomas?

    Paciente: Tengo dolor de cabeza, me duele la garganta y tengo un poco de náuseas.

    Doctor: ¿Hace cuánto tiempo que no se siente bien?

    Paciente: Hace dos días. 

    Doctor: Vamos a ver si tiene fiebre usted...   Sí. Tiene la temperatura un poco alta.

                Es mejor que usted descanse unos días. Es importante tomar mucha agua y otros líquidos. Es probable que sea un virus. Tome aspirinas o Tylenol 

                para el dolor de cabeza. No necesita antibióticos en este momento, pero si no se siente mejor en tres dias, vuelva a poner otra cita.


    Thinking about the grammar - commands - Formal Commands

    When we go to the doctor, they will most probably give us some recommendations. They may even use the imperative (command forms) to tell us exactly what to do. If we look at the last two lines spoken by the doctor in the above dialogue, we can see two verbs in the formal (usted conjugation) of the imperative. They are the verbs, ¨tomar¨ and ¨volver.¨ What do you notice about the conjugations. If you were to conjugate them in the usted conjugation of the present tense you already know, we would have ¨toma¨ and ¨vuelve.¨ The first conjugations you learned (last semester) are called the indicative. To tell people what to do, we need the imperative. Here are some verbs and how they look different in the indicative and the imperative of the usted conjugation.

    infinitivo indicativo imperativo
    verbos regulares  

    Notice that the vowel flips from ¨a¨ to ¨e¨ or from ¨e¨ to ¨a¨

    hablar habla hable
    comer come coma
    vivir vive viva
    verbos que se cambian de raíz (stem changing verbs)   To get the imperative, first get the ¨yo¨ conjugation of the indicative. Write everything down except for the ¨o¨ and then add the new ending. 
    volver vuelve vuelva
    dormir duerme duerma
    pedir pide pida
    algunos verbos irregulares (some irregular verbs)    
    tener tiene tenga

    Do you remember any other verbs that have the ¨go¨ in the ¨yo¨ conjugation of the indicative?

    Here are some: salir, poner, venir, hacer

    The following verbs are completely irregular and just need to be memorized.     
    ser es sea
    ir va vaya

    More thoughts about the grammar from the dialogue: When you tell someone it is better that they do something, you use a conjugation called the subjunctive. For the usted conjugations, it looks just like the imperative. The only difference is that it isn´t a direct command. You are telling them what you want them to do, or need them to do, but you are not directly telling them to do it.


    Es mejor que usted descanse unos días. (It is better that you rest a few days.) We used the subjunctive of the verb ¨descansar.¨

    We could have also said, ¨Es importante que tome mucha agua.¨ (It is important that you drink a lot of water.) Instead we said, ¨Es importante tomar mucha agua.¨ (It is important to drink a lot of water.) If we make it a general statement instead of specific to ¨you,¨ we don´t conjugate that verb. We just leave it in the infinitive. 

    Query \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    If you are giving commands to a group with which you use ¨ustedes,¨ you form the imperative in the same way as for ¨usted.¨ The only difference is that the conjugation will have an ¨n¨ on the end. Remember though, that if the infinitive has a ¨se¨ at the end, it means it is reflexive. You must place the ¨se¨ before the conjugated verb if it is a negative command. If it is a positive command, however, you must attach the ¨se¨ to the end of the command. Add a tilde (written accent mark) in order to keep the stress where it falls in the verb when the pronoun isn´t attached to the end. 

    Query \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    10.4: En la oficina del médico - imperativo de ustedes is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.