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10.4: Glossary

  • Page ID
    22016
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    deductive argument An argument presented with the intention of being deductively valid and perhaps deductively sound.

    deductively sound An argument that is deductively valid and whose basic premises are all true.

    deductively valid An argument whose conclusion follows from its basic premises with certainty.

    follows with certainty Statement C follows from statement (or group of statements) P with certainty if C would have to be true if P were.

    follows with probability Statement C follows from statement (or group of statements) P with probability if C is probably true if P is true.

    implies with certainty A statement (or group of statements) P implies a statement Q with certainty if Q is forced to be true whenever P is true. More formally, P implies Q with certainty if these two conditions hold: (1) it is logically inconsistent for P to be true without Q also being true.

    implies with probability A statement (or group of statements) P implies a statement Q with probability if Q is probably true when P is true. More formally, P implies Q with probability if these two conditions hold: (1) it is improbable for P to be true without Q also being true.

    inductive argument An argument intended to be inductively strong.

    inductively strong An argument is inductively strong if its conclusion follows from its basic premises with high probability. The strengths of inductive arguments are a matter of degree; some are stronger than others.

    premises An argument's reasons or assumptions.

    proofs Sound deductive arguments or very strong inductive arguments. Generally, mathematical proofs must be sound, and scientific proofs must only be inductively strong.


    This page titled 10.4: Glossary is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Bradley H. Dowden.

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