# Section 7: Practice Exercises

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At the end of each chapter, you will find a series of practice problems that review and explore the material covered in the chapter. There is no substitute for actually working through some problems, because logic is more about a way of thinking than it is about memorizing facts. The answers to some of the problems are provided at the end of the book in appendix B; the problems that are solved in the appendix are marked with a *.

Part A Which of the following are ‘sentences’ in the logical sense?

1. England is smaller than China.
2. Greenland is south of Jerusalem.
3. Is New Jersey east of Wisconsin?
4. The atomic number of helium is 2.
5. The atomic number of helium is π.
6. I hate overcooked noodles.
7. Blech! Overcooked noodles!
8. Overcooked noodles are disgusting.
10. This is the last question.

Part B For each of the following: Is it a tautology, a contradiction, or a contingent sentence?

1. Caesar crossed the Rubicon.
2. Someone once crossed the Rubicon.
3. No one has ever crossed the Rubicon.
4. If Caesar crossed the Rubicon, then someone has.
5. Even though Caesar crossed the Rubicon, no one has ever crossed the Rubicon.
6. If anyone has ever crossed the Rubicon, it was Caesar.

* Part C Look back at the sentences G1–G4 on p. 11, and consider each of the following sets of sentences. Which are consistent? Which are inconsistent?

1. G2, G3, and G4
2. G1, G3, and G4
3. G1, G2, and G4
4. G1, G2, and G3

* Part D Which of the following is possible? If it is possible, give an example. If it is not possible, explain why.

1. A valid argument that has one false premise and one true premise
2. A valid argument that has a false conclusion
3. A valid argument, the conclusion of which is a contradiction
4. An invalid argument, the conclusion of which is a tautology
5. A tautology that is contingent
6. Two logically equivalent sentences, both of which are tautologies
7. Two logically equivalent sentences, one of which is a tautology and one of which is contingent
8. Two logically equivalent sentences that together are an inconsistent set
9. A consistent set of sentences that contains a contradiction
10. An inconsistent set of sentences that contains a tautology

This page titled Section 7: Practice Exercises is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by P.D. Magnus (Fecundity) .