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1.4: Galatians 2-1-10

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    Instructions: Translate the Greek text with help from the reader notes. Complete the MYON (Make Your Own Note) and Discussion Questions if you desire.

    1 Ἔπειτα διὰ δεκατεσσάρων ἐτῶν πάλιν ἀνέβην εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα μετὰ Βαρναβᾶ συμπαραλαβὼν καὶ Τίτον· 2 ἀνέβην δὲ κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν· καὶ ἀνεθέμην αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, κατ’ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς δοκοῦσιν, μή πως εἰς κενὸν τρέχω ἢ ἔδραμον. 3 ἀλλ’ οὐδὲ Τίτος ὁ σὺν ἐμοί, Ἕλλην ὤν, ἠναγκάσθη περιτμηθῆναι· 4 διὰ δὲ τοὺς παρεισάκτους ψευδαδέλφους, οἵτινες παρεισῆλθον κατασκοπῆσαι τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἡμῶν ἣν ἔχομεν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἵνα ἡμᾶς ⸀καταδουλώσουσιν— 5 οἷς οὐδὲ πρὸς ὥραν εἴξαμεν τῇ ὑποταγῇ, ἵνα ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐαγγελίου διαμείνῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς. 6 ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δοκούντων εἶναί τι—ὁποῖοί ποτε ἦσαν οὐδέν μοι διαφέρει· πρόσωπον ⸀θεὸς ἀνθρώπου οὐ λαμβάνει—ἐμοὶ γὰρ οἱ δοκοῦντες οὐδὲν προσανέθεντο, 7 ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον ἰδόντες ὅτι πεπίστευμαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀκροβυστίας καθὼς Πέτρος τῆς περιτομῆς, 8 ὁ γὰρ ἐνεργήσας Πέτρῳ εἰς ἀποστολὴν τῆς περιτομῆς ἐνήργησεν καὶ ἐμοὶ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, 9 καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάννης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στῦλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρναβᾷ κοινωνίας, ἵνα ⸀ἡμεῖς εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν· 10 μόνον τῶν πτωχῶν ἵνα μνημονεύωμεν, ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι. SBLGNT


    [SN] The adverb ἒπειτα is #temporal (see note on 1:18).

    [SN] Διὰ δεκατεσσάρων ἐτῶν is a #temporal genitive prepositional phrase that gives greater specificity to the adverb (“after fourteen years”).

    [LN] Ἀνέβην (AAI1S LF: ἀναβαίνω) means “to go up” and should be understood as synonymous with ἀνέρχομαι (cf. 1:18).

    [GMN, LN]Συμπαραλαβὼν (AAPMSN LF: συμπαραλαμβάνω) is an aorist participle from a compound of σύν + παραλαμβάνω (the latter being a compound of παρά + λαμβάνω), used in the NT only in reference to companions of Paul and/or Barnabas (cf. Acts 12:25, 15:37−38). It means “take with” or “take along.”

    MYON [SN] Συμπαραλαβὼν: Parse and describe how this verb functions.


    [LN] The prepositional phrase κατά ἀποκάλυψιν (FSA LF: ἀποκάλυψις) means “on account of/in accordance with a revelation.”

    [GMN] Ἀνεθέμην is AMI1S (LF: ἀνατίθημι).

    [SN] The relative pronoun (NSA) refers to τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, the object of Paul’s preaching.

    [SN]Κατ᾿ ἰδίαν is an idiom meaning “in private” (lit. “according to one’s own”).

    [SN, GMN] Τοῖς δοκοῦσιν (PAPMPD LF: δοκέω) is a #substantival participle. Paul set his gospel before “the well-reputed ones.” The definite article distinguishes this from the PAI3P form of δοκέω.

    [SN] Μή with the particle πως introduces a #purpose clause: “So that I might not run in vain.”

    [SN, LN]Εἰς κενὸν: The preposition εἰς denotes the #purpose or #result of Paul’s running (κενὸν: “emptiness”), here forming an idiom often translated as “in vain.”

    [SN]Τρέχω (PAS1S LF: τρέχω): Subjunctive verbs commonly appear in #purpose clauses, with μή as an indicator.

    [GMN] The verb ἔδραμον is AAI1S (LF: τρέχω).


    [SN] Ἀλλ’ οὐδὲ is an emphatic construction meaning “But not even . . .”

    [SN] The participle ὤν (PPMSN LF: εἰμί) refers back to Τίτος, the subject of the clause. It should be read as a #concessive participle (“though he was a Greek”).

    [GMN]Ἠναγκάσθη (API3S LF: ἀναγκάζω): Note the lengthening of α to η due to the aorist tense augment and the ζ changing to σ to accommodate the aorist passive indicator -θη.

    [GMN] Περιτμηθῆναι is APN (LF: περιτέμνω).


    [SN] Διὰ with the accusative τοὺς παρεισάκτους is #causal.

    [LN] Παρεισάκτους (MPA LF: παρείσακτος) conveys the idea of coming alongside of someone under false pretenses.

    [LN]Ψευδαδέλφους (MPA LF: ψευδαδέλφος) only occurs twice in the NT (cf. 2 Cor 11:26) and literally means “false brothers.”

    [GMN] The #indefinite pronoun οἵτινες is MPN (LF ὃστις).

    [LN]Παρεισῆλθον (AAI3P LF: παρεισέρχομαι) means “to enter secretly.”

    [TN] Note the parallel use of the prefix παρεισ- in παρεισάκτους and παρεισῆλθον. Paul is implying that these false brothers (ψευδαδέλφους) entered secretly under false pretenses (παρεισῆλθον).

    [LN, GMN]Κατασκοπῆσαι (AAN LF: κατασκοπέω) means “to spy.”

    [SN]Τὴν ἐλευθεριαν (FSA LF: ἐλευθερία) is the direct object of κατασκοπῆσαι.

    [SN] Relative pronoun ἣν (FSA) refers back to τὴν ἐλευθεριαν.

    [SN] Ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ could be a #causal use of ἐν (“because of Christ Jesus”) or a #spatial use (“in Christ Jesus”).

    [SN] Regarding ἵνα ἡμᾶς καταδουλώσουσιν, the use of the future indicative καταδουλώσουσιν (FAI3P LF: καταδουλόω) with ἵνα creates a #subjunctive equivalent and denotes #purpose.


    [SN] The relative pronoun οἷς (MPD) refers back to the “false brothers” (v. 4).

    [LN] Πρὸς ὥραν is an idiom meaning something along the lines of “for a moment.” The translation “an hour” would not make sense to modern readers, but in the NT world an hour was typically the smallest measurement of time (however, cf. Rev 8:1 ἡμιώριον, “a half-hour”). Paul then uses πρὸς ὥραν as the equivalent of our “[not] for one minute/second/moment.”

    [LN] Εἴξαμεν (AAI1P LF: εἴκω) is a NT #hapax legomenon meaning “to yield.”

    [LN, SN] ῾Υποταγῇ (FSD LF: ὑποταγή) means “subordination,” “submission,” or “obedience.” The noun ὑποταγῇ is redundant here but is used by Paul to amplify εἴξαμεν. It could be a #dative of manner or #reference.

    [SN] Ἀλήθειατοῦ εὐαγγελίου: This same construction, “the truth of the gospel,” occurs in 2:14 and is a #descriptive genitive (“the truth described/characterized by the gospel”) or #epexegetical genitive (“the truth, which is the gospel” cf. Col 1:5).

    [SN] Διαμείνῃ (AAS3S LF: διαμένω), together with ἵνα, expresses #purpose. It carries the connotation of “to endure” or “to continue unchanged.” It occurs five times in the NT, this being the only Pauline usage.


    [SN] The preposition ἀπwith the #substantival participle τῶν δοκούντων (PAPMPG LF: δοκέω) expresses #source.

    [LN] Τῶν δοκούντων refers to those who have a reputation of prominence or influence.

    [SN] Εἶναί (PN LF: εἰμί) is a #complementary infinitive and helps to complete the thought of τῶν δοκούντων (i.e., “those reputed to be something”). Because εἰμί is a helping verb, the indefinite pronoun τι is a #predicate accusative.

    [LN] Πρόσωπον . . . οὐ λαμβάνει is an idiom meaning “God shows no partiality/favoritism” (lit. “God does not receive a person’s face”).

    [SN] Ὀ θεὸς is a #parenthetic nominative in which θεὸς is the subject of an explanatory clause within the larger clause.

    [GMN] Προσανέθεντο is AMI3P (LF: προσανατίθημι).


    [SN] The adverb τοὐναντίον means “on the contrary” or “instead” and pairs with ἀλλὰ to create an emphatic expression.

    [SN] Ἰδόντες (AAPMPN LF: ὀραω) is either #temporal (“when they saw”) or #causal (“because they saw”).

    [SN] Τὸ εὐαγγέλιον: This is the #retained accusative object of the passive πεπίστευμαι.

    [SN] Τῆς ἀκροβυστίας . . . τῆς περιτομῆς refers to Gentiles and Jews, respectively, and they function as #objective genitives. The noun τὸ εὐαγγέλιον is implied before τῆς περιτομῆς.


    [SN] Ὁ . . . ἐνεργήσας (AAPMSN LF: ἐνεργέω) is a #substantival participle. Thus, it should be rendered “the one who empowered,” with God and/or Christ as the implied subject (cf. 1:1).

    [SN] Πέτρῳ (MSD LF: Πέτρος) functions as the direct object of the participle ἐνεργήσας and is a #dative of advantage, i.e., Peter received the benefit of being empowered. Another possibility is #dative of means, expressing Peter as the one by whom the empowerer/worker achieves apostleship to the circumcised.

    [SN] In the construction Πέτρῳ εἰς ἀποστολὴν,εἰς with the accusative denotes the purpose of Peter’s empowerment and could thus be translated “empowered Peter for his apostleship.”

    [GMN] In ἐνεργήσας and ἐνήργησεν, there is a lengthening of the connecting vowel ε since it is a #contract verb (LF: ἐνεργέω). This lengthening yields the η before their respective endings.


    [GMN, SN] Γνόντες (AAPMPN LF: γινώσκω) should be recognized as a second aorist form, as it has undergone a clear stem change. The syntactical function of this participle is probably #causal. It provides an explanation or a reason for the resultant action, namely that the apostles extended fellowship to Paul and Barnabas.

    [GMN] Δοθεῖσάν is APPFSA (LF: δίδωμι).

    [SN]Τὴν χἀριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν: The participle in this construction is acting adjectivally, in an #attributive position.

    [GMN]Ἰωἀννης (MSN): The name John in Greek is not regularly declined. The reader might note variances in various texts.

    [LN, SN] Δεξιὰς . . . κοινωνίας: The adjective δεξιὰς, meaning “right,” is acting #substantively and is to be understood as referring to the right hand (cf. Rev 1:20; 5:7). The genitive noun, κοινωνίας, is adjectival and forms an idiom (“the right hand of fellowship”) that indicates the partnership/solidarity extended to Paul and Barnabas by James, Cephas, and John.

    [GMN] Ἒδωκαν (AAI3P LF: δίδωμι): Remember that μι verbs use a -κα aorist tense formative rather than the -σα aorist formative expected of regular verbs.

    [SN] Ἵνα . . . περιτομήν: A subjunctive verb, which is expected to follow ἵνα, has not been included in this clause. Based upon the context, the reader might supply a verb such as “to go” or “to preach” in order to construct a coherent meaning.


    [SN] Μόνον τῶν πτωχῶν: This clause is not directly related to the preceding clause; rather, it seems to refer back to the earlier discussion in v. 6 regarding what the Jerusalem leaders contributed to Paul’s gospel. Paul indicates that remembering the poor (τῶν πτωχῶν . . . μνημονεύωμεν) was the only thing requested by the Jerusalem leadership.

    [SN] Ἵνα either indicates the content of an implied verb (e.g., “they asked”) or implies an imperatival use of the following subjunctive verb.

    [LN] Μνημονεύωμεν (PAS1P LF: μνημονεύω) means “to remember,” and here connotes remembrance in terms of concrete engagement with the poor (e.g., giving, ministering, etc.).

    [SN] Καὶ here is acting adverbially and should be translated “also” or “indeed.”

    [GMN] Ἐσπούδασα (AAI1S LF: σπουδάζω): The final letter of the true stem is a #dental and as such has dropped out in order to accommodate the -σα formative of the aorist.

    [GMN] Ποιῆσαι (AAN LF: ποιἐω) is a #contract verb.

    Discussion Questions (2:1−10)

    [2:2] When Paul goes to Jerusalem, he presents the gospel he preaches to “those of repute” (τοῖς δοκοῦσιν; cf. v. 6). Does anything in the context suggest that Paul means this phrase genuinely, or could it be a negative or sarcastic label?

    [2:4] What makes the “false brothers” (ψευδαδέλφους) “false”? What are the possible meanings of this term? Does Paul provide any contextual clues?

    [2:8]Πέτρῳ may be understood as either a #dative of advantage (Peter benefited from being empowered for apostleship) or #means (Peter was the instrument by whom ministry to the circumcised was accomplished). How do these choices affect our understanding of Paul’s views on apostolic authority and mission in Galatians?

    This page titled 1.4: Galatians 2-1-10 is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Nijay K. Gupta & Jonah M. Sandford.

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