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1.3: Galatians 1-18-24

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    Instructions: Translate the Greek text with help from the reader notes. Complete the MYON (Make Your Own Note) and Discussion Question if you desire.

    18 Ἔπειτα μετὰ ⸂ἔτη τρία⸃ ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἱστορῆσαι ⸀Κηφᾶν, καὶ ἐπέμεινα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡμέρας δεκαπέντε· 19ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ Ἰάκωβον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ κυρίου. 20 ἃ δὲ γράφω ὑμῖν, ἰδοὺ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι οὐ ψεύδομαι. 21ἔπειτα ἦλθον εἰς τὰ κλίματα τῆς Συρίας καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας. 22 ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ, 23 μόνον δὲ ἀκούοντες ἦσαν ὅτι Ὁ διώκων ἡμᾶς ποτε νῦν εὐαγγελίζεται τὴν πίστιν ἥν ποτε ἐπόρθει, 24 καὶ ἐδόξαζον ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸν θεόν. SBLGNT

    1: 18

    [SN] The adverb ἔπειτα appears three times in Galatians to denote sequence, best translated “then” (cf. 1:21, 2:1).

    [LN] Ἱστορῆσαι (AAN LF: ἱστορέω) is a #hapax legomenon; the verb ἱστορέω denotes a visit for the purpose of gathering information.

    [GMN] Ἐπέμεινα (AAI1S LF: ἐπιμένω) is a #liquid verb formed by the preposition ἐπί and the verb μένω. This first aorist form is the result of the lengthening of the stem vowel due to the loss of the σ. Note also that the augment appears at the end of the prepositional prefix (ι→ε).

    [SN] The phrase ἡμέρας δεκαπέντε is an #accusative of extent, denoting the length of time Paul stayed with Cephas (δεκαπέντε = 15).


    [SN] Τῶν άποστόλων (MPG LF: ἀπόστολος) is a #partitive genitive.

    [SN]Εἰ μὴ is an idiomatic construction meaning “except.” This construction qualifies the previous assertion.

    [LN]Ἰάκωβον refers to James, the brother of Jesus.

    [SN]Τὸν ἀδελφὸν is in #apposition to Ἰάκωβον.


    [SN] The NPA relative pronoun (“what”) lacks a specific antecedent. Here it is the direct object of γράφω.

    [SN] Δὲ is a simple connective conjunction and should be translated as “and” or “now.”

    [SN, GMN] Ἰδοὺ draws attention to the statement that follows it. Though morphologically it is an imperative verb (AMM2S LF: ὁράω), it functions as an interjection (“behold!” or “pay attention!”) and thus need not be evaluated in the clause as a traditional verb.

    [TN] The prepositional phrase ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ connotes the image of swearing an oath in the presence of God.

    [SN] This is a ὅτι of #indirect discourse.


    [LN] Κλίματα (NPA LF: κλίμα) means “districts,” “territories,” or (as is most popular) “regions.”


    [SN] Here ἤμην (II1S LF: ἐιμί) . . . ἀγνοούμενος (PPPMSN LF: ἀγνοέω) is an imperfect #periphrastic construction.

    [SN] Τῷ προσώπῳ (NSD LF: πρόσωπον) functions as a #dative of means. With the periphrastic construction, it explains that Paul was unknown by sight (lit. “by face”).


    [SN] The adjective μὸνον (NSA LF: μὸνος) is used here adverbially.

    [SN] Ἀκούοντες (PAPMPN LF: ἀκοὐω) ἦσαν (II3P LF: εἰμί) is an imperfect #periphrastic construction.

    [SN] This is a ὅτι of #direct discourse introducing a quotation and should be left untranslated.

    [SN, LN] Τὴν πίστιν (FSA LF: πίστις) is the direct object of εὐαγγελίζεται, used to denote those with faith in Christ/followers of Christ. It may be intended as synonymous with τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ in 1:13.

    [LN] Ἐπόρθει (IAI1S LF: πορθὲω) is used only three times in the NT, all in relation to Paul and his former zeal against “the faith” (Acts 9:21; Gal 1:13, 23); it means “to lay waste, destroy, harass, ravage.”


    MYON [GMN] Ἐδόξαζον: Parse this verb.

    [SN] The phrase ἐν ἐμοὶ indicates the #cause of ἐδόξαζον.

    Discussion Question (1:18−24)

    [1:20] In the phrase ἃ δὲ γράφω ὑμῖν, the relative pronoun lacks a specific antecedent. What is Paul referring to here?

    This page titled 1.3: Galatians 1-18-24 is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Nijay K. Gupta & Jonah M. Sandford.

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