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3.4.3: Endnotes

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    Endnotes

    Complete citations are included at the end of the book.

    86 NPR released a fascinating investigatory piece on fake news production in 2016 called “We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator in The Suburbs. Here’s What We Learned.” You can listen to it here.

    87 Kinsley, Michael. “The Intellectual Free Lunch.” 1995. The Seagull Reader: Essays, Norton, 2016, pp. 251-253.

    88 Ibid., 253.

    89 The Toulmin model of argumentation is another common framework and structure which is not discussed here.

    90 Wetzel, John. “The MCAT Writing Assignment.” WikiPremed, Wisebridge Learning Systems LLC, 2013, http://www.wikipremed.com/mcat_essay.php. [Link has expired since publication. For more information, see WikiPremed website.] Reproduced in accordance with Creative Commons licensure.

    91 I find this distinction especially valuable because there is some slippage in what instructors mean by “rhetorical triangle”—e.g., “logos, pathos, ethos” vs. “reader, writer, text.” The latter set of definitions, used to determine rhetorical situation, is superseded in this text by SOAP (subject, occasion, audience, purpose).

    92 This correlation is an oft-cited example, but the graph is a fabrication to make a point, not actual data.

    93 See Frederic Filloux’s 2016 article, “Facebook’s Walled Wonderland is Inherently Incompatible with News [Medium article].”

    94 See “Power and Place Equal Personality” (Deloria) or “Jasmine-Not-Jasmine” (Han) for noncomprehensive but interesting examples.

    Deloria, Jr., Vine. “Power and Place Equal Personality.” Indian Education in America by Deloria and Daniel Wildcat, Fulcrum, 2001, pp. 21-28.

    Han, Shaogang. “Jasmine-Not-Jasmine.” A Dictionary of Maqiao, translated by Julia Lovell, Dial Press, 2005, pp. 352+.

    95 Essay by Samantha Lewis, Portland State University, 2015. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    96 Essay by Jennifer Vo-Nguyen, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    97 Essay by Tim Curtiss, Portland Community College, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    98 Perhaps best known in this regard is Bruce Ballenger, author of The Curious Researcher, a text which has greatly impacted my philosophies of research and research writing

    99 See Filloux.

    100 Inspired by Kenneth Burke. Burke, Kenneth. The Philosophy of Literary Form, University of California Press, 1941.

    101 Depending on your rhetorical situation, you might also ask if your question is arguable, rather than answerable.

    102 Teachers also refer to very complex or subjective questions as “not researchable”—so it’s likely that your research question will need to be both arguable101 and researchable.

    103 This exercise is loosely based on Ballenger’s “Interest Inventory” exercise. Ballenger, Bruce. The Curious Researcher, 9th edition, Pearson, 2018, pp. 21-22.

    104 Proposal by Kathryn Morris, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    105 Proposal by Hannah Zarnick, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    106 Proposal by Benjamin Duncan, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    107 Baotic, Anton, Florian Sicks and Angela S. Stoeger. “Nocturnal ‘Humming’ Vocalizations: Adding a Piece of the Puzzle of Giraffe Vocal Communication.” BioMed Central Research Notes vol. 8, no. 425, 2015. US National Library of Medicine, doi 10.1186/s13104-015- 1394-3.

    108 One particularly useful additional resource is the text “Annoying Ways People Use Sources,” externally linked in the Additional Recommended Resources appendix of this book.

    109 Greenough 215.

    Greenough, Paul. “Pathogens, Pugmarks, and Political ‘Emergency’: The 1970s South Asian Debate on Nature.” Nature in the Global South: Environmental Projects in South and Southeast Asia, Duke University Press, 2003, pp. 201-230.

    110 Excerpt by Jesse Carroll, Portland State University, 2015. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    111 Ibid.

    112 Sagan, Carl. Cosmos, Ballantine, 2013.

    113 Annotated bibliography by Celso Naranjo, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    114 Annotated bibliography by Kathryn Morris, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    115 Annotated bibliography by Hannah Zarnick, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    116 Essay by Christopher Gaylord, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    117 Essay by Kathryn Morris, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    118 Essay by Hannah Zarnick, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    119 Essay by Jessica Beer, Portland State University, 2016. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    120 Essay by Josiah McCallister, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    121 Essay by Ezra Coble, Portland Community College, 2018. Reproduced with permission from the student author.


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