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1.4.3: Endnotes

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    Endnotes

    Complete citations for images are included at the end of the book.

    13 There is a school of writing based on this practice, termed остранение by Viktor Shklovsky, commonly translated into English as defamiliarization.

    Shklovsky, Viktor. “Art as Technique.” 1925. Literary Theory: An Anthology, 2nd edition, edited by Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan, Blackwell, 2004, pp. 12-15.

    14 Excerpt by an anonymous student author, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    15 Excerpt by an anonymous student author, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    16 Excerpt by Ross Reaume, Portland State University, 2014. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    17 The term “thick description” was coined by Gilbert Ryle and adopted into the field of anthropology by Clifford Geertz.

    Ryle, Gilbert. Collected Essays (1929-1968), vol. 2, Routledge, 2009, 479+.

    Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures, Basic Books, 1973.

    18 Excerpt by an anonymous student author, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    19 Excerpt by Noel Taylor, Portland State University, 2014. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    20 Excerpt by Chris Gaylord, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    21 This activity is courtesy of Mackenzie Myers.

    22 This activity was inspired by Susan Kirtley, William Thomas Van Camp, and Bruce Ballenger.

    23 This activity is a modified version of one by Daniel Hershel.

    24 Essay by Chris Chan, Portland State University, 2014. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    25 Essay by Kiley Yoakum, Portland Community College, 2016. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    26 Essay by Franklin, who has requested his last name not be included. Portland Community College, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    27 “The Big Bang.” Doctor Who, written by Steven Moffat, BBC, 2010.

    28 Of interest on this topic is the word sonder, defined at The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows: (n.) the realization that each random passerby is living a life as vivid and complex as your own—populated with their own ambitions, friends, routines, worries and inherited craziness—an epic story that continues invisibly around you like an anthill sprawling deep underground, with elaborate passageways to thousands of other lives that you’ll never know existed, in which you might appear only once, as an extra sipping coffee in the background, as a blur of traffic passing on the highway, as a lighted window at dusk.

    Koening, John. “Sonder.” The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows, 22 July 2012, http://www.dictionaryofobscuresorrows.com/post/23536922667/sonder.

    29 Gustav Freytag is credited with this particular model, often referred to as “Freytag’s pyramid.” Freytag studied the works of Shakespeare and a collection of Greek tragic plays to develop this model in Die Technik des Dramas (1863).

    30 For the sake of brevity, I have not included here a discussion of focalization, an important phenomenon to consider when studying point-of-view more in-depth.

    31 Sometimes tone and mood align, and you might describe them using similar adjectives—a joyous tone might create joy for the reader. However, they sometimes don’t align, depending largely on the rhetorical situation and the author’s approach to that situation. For instance, a story’s tone might be bitter, but the reader might find the narrator’s bitterness funny, offputting, or irritating. Often, tone and mood are in opposition to create irony: Jonathan Swift’s matter-of-fact tone in “A Modest Proposal” is satirical, producing a range of emotions for the audience, from revulsion to hilarity.

    32 Excerpt by an anonymous student author, 2016. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    33 Thanks to Alex Dannemiller for his contributions to this subsection.

    34 Tips on podcasting and audio engineering [transom.org]

    Interactive web platform hosting [H5P.org]

    Audio editing and engineering: NCH WavePad Audio Editing Software

    Whiteboard video creation (paid, free trial): Video scribe

    Infographic maker: Piktochart

    Comic and graphic narrative software (free, paid upgrades): Pixton

    35 Vazquez, Robyn. Interview with Shane Abrams. 2 July 2017, Deep End Theater, Portland, OR.

    36 This activity is a modified version of one by Lily Harris.

    37 Thanks to Alex Dannemiller for his contributions to this subsection.

    38 Essay by Joey Butler, Portland Community College, 2016. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    39 Essay by an anonymous student author, 2016. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    40 Essay by an anonymous student author, 2014. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    41 To consider this phenomenon further, check out The Importance of Empathy (Youtube video)

    42 This is a phrase I picked up from Kelly Gallagher. Gallagher, Kelly. Write Like This, Stenhouse, 2011.

    43 Faces. “Ooh La La.” Ooh La La, 1973.

    44 This activity is a modified version of one by Susan Kirtley.

    45 Admittedly, this story is a not the kind of narrative you will write if your teacher has assigned a descriptive personal narrative: it is fictional and in third person. For the purposes of studying reflection as a rhetorical gesture, though, “Little Red Riding Hood” does some of the same things that a personal narrative would: it uses a story to deliver a didactic message based on learning from experience.

    46 Perrault, Charles. “Little Red Riding Hood.” 1697. Making Literature Matter, 4th edition, edited by John Schlib and John Clifford, Bedford, 2009, pp. 1573-1576.

    47 This exercise is loosely based on Gallagher, pp. 44-45.

    48 The quote reproduced below is from “My Scrubs.” Scrubs, NBC Universal, 2007.

    49 Essay by Beth Harding, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    50 Essay by Katherine Morris, Portland State University, 2016. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    51 Essay by Derek Holt, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    52 Essay by an anonymous student author, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    53 Essay by Carlynn de Joya, Portland State University, 2017. Reproduced with permission from the student author.

    54 Essay by Maia Wiseman, Portland State University, 2014. Reproduced with permission from the student author.


    1.4.3: Endnotes is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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