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Answer Key

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    247171
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    CHAPTER 1

    1a. The simple subject is the part of the sentence that names, without modifiers, who or what the sentence is about. The simple predicate is the part that says something about the subject. It also contains no modifiers or complements.

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    Complete subject

    1. Wendell
    2. that nice family
    3. sentences
    4. the calla lilies
    5. Rudolpho

    CHAPTER 2

    Complete predicate

    behaved politely

    Tonight; ate on the porch again

    Backwards ran

    In the spring; were in bloom again

    This morning; was waiting on the porch for breakfast

    2a. In the sentences below, underline the complete predicates. Then enclose the simple subjects and simple predicates in brackets:

    1. The [family] [was having] coffee.
    2. The [family] [was] content.
    3. Without warning, [John] [entered] the room.
    4. [John] [made] an announcement.
    5. The [vases] [are] gone.
    6. The [family] [became] furious.
    7. [Mr. Morton] [had struck] again.
    8. [Mr. Morton] [had] some nerve.
    9. Someday that [man] [will regret] his actions.
    10. Mr. Morton’s [reputation] [has been damaged] by these

    allegations.
    11. Everywhere [people] [are hiding] their vases. 12. [Mr. Morton] [seems] a little strange.

    2b. Now, in the sentences that you just examined, identify action verbs (with A) and linking verbs (with L):

    1. A 2. L 3. A

    4. A 5. L 6. L 7. A 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. A 12. L

    2c. Finally, identify the auxiliary verbs and the main verb in each sentence you’ve examined. The main verbs are underlined.

    1. was having 2. was
    3. entered
    4. made

    5. are
    6. became
    7. had struck
    8. had
    9. will regret
    10. has been damaged 11. are hiding
    12. seems

    CHAPTER 3

    3a. Write from memory the simple and perfect tenses of the verb call.

    Answer Key | 253

    SIMPLE PRESENT: SIMPLE PAST: SIMPLE FUTURE:

    Today I call. Yesterday I called. Tomorrow I will call.

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    PRESENT PERFECT: PAST PERFECT: FUTURE PERFECT:

    Today I have called.
    As of yesterday, I had called.
    By this time tomorrow, I will have called.

    3b. Write from memory the simple progressive and perfect progressive tenses of the verb call.

    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: Today I am calling.
    PAST PROGRESSIVE: Yesterday I was calling. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: Tomorrow I will be calling.

    PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: Today I have been calling.
    PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: Yesterday I had been calling. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: Tomorrow I will have been calling.

    3c. Write from memory the simple and perfect tenses of the verb know.

    SIMPLE PRESENT: SIMPLE PAST: SIMPLE FUTURE:

    PRESENT PERFECT: PAST PERFECT: FUTURE PERFECT:

    Today I know. Yesterday I knew. Tomorrow I will know.

    Today I have known.
    As of yesterday, I had known.
    By this time tomorrow, I will have known.

    3d. Write from memory the simple progressive and perfect progressive tenses of the verb know.

    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: PAST PROGRESSIVE: FUTURE PROGRESSIVE:

    Today I am knowing. Yesterday I was knowing. Tomorrow I will be knowing.

    PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: Today I have been knowing.
    PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: Yesterday I had been knowing. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: Tomorrow I will have been knowing.

    3e. Complete these sentences using the correct verb and the correct principal part:

    1. I will sit here. (sit / set)
    2. I will set my suitcase in the corner. (sit / set)

    3. I will raise my bag to the top shelf. (rise / raise) 4. I will rise from my seat. (rise / raise)
    5. I have risen from my seat. (risen / raised)
    6. I have raised my bag. (risen / raised)

    7. I will lie down. (lie / lay)
    8. I will lay my bag over here. (lie / lay)
    9. I have lain here for an hour. (lain / laid)
    10. An hour ago, I laid my bag there. (lain / laid)

    3f. Complete the sentences using one or more auxiliary verbs:

    1. The perfect tenses use forms of the auxiliary verb have.
    2. The progressive tenses use forms of the auxiliary verb be.
    3. The perfect progressive tenses use forms of two auxiliary

      verbs: have and be.

    4. All future tenses use the auxiliary will.

    3g. Identify the tense of the verb in each of the following sentences using one of these twelve terms:

    • Simple past, present, or future
    • Present perfect, past perfect, or future perfect
    • Present progressive, past progressive, or future progressive
    • Present perfect progressive, past perfect progressive, or

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    future perfect progressive

    1. She was here yesterday. Simple past
    2. We have been waiting for you for an hour. Present perfect

    progressive

    1. She broke her glasses. Simple past
    2. She has broken her glasses twice. Present perfect
    3. Yesterday’s news burst all our illusions. Simple past
    4. I will speak to the principal. Simple future
    5. I will be speaking to the principal. Future progressive
    6. We had spoken to the principal already. Past perfect
    7. You will have been speaking to the principal for an hour.

      Future perfect progressive

    10. I have sung this song before. Present perfect

    3h. Complete the sentences using the names of principal parts of the verbs, or with the auxiliaries will, have, and be.

    1. The perfect tenses are constructed using the third principal part, called the past participle.
    2. The progressive tenses are constructed using the fourth principal part, called the present participle.
    3. All future tense verbs begin with the auxiliary will.
    4. All perfect tenses are constructed using some form of the

      auxiliary have.

    5. All progressive tenses are constructed using some form of

      the auxiliary be.

    6. The tenses constructed using both the auxiliaries have and

      be are called the perfect progressive tenses.

    CHAPTER 4

    4a. The three articles: a, an, the

    4b. Identify the adjectives (including articles) in these sentences and underline them.

    1. The new teacher is waiting in the outer office.
    2. A rainy day could ruin the entire event.
    3. Count Dracula is the tall, pale man in the shadows.
    4. A backyard garden is a wonderful thing.
    5. She wore a red and white dress to the casual party.
    6. I gave my little brother good advice.
    7. She has been a better student this year because of her hard

      work.

    8. Bob’s idea is the worst idea I’ve heard in a long time.
    9. The point-by-point refutation was a difficult argument to

      follow.

    10. Two roads lead to his farm. 11. Which roads are those?

    4c. Give the comparative and superlative forms of these adjectives; use a dictionary when you need to. In some cases, there may be no comparative or superlative forms.

    1. Small, smaller, smallest 2. Fast, faster, fastest
    3. Bright, brighter, brightest 4. Good, better, best

    5. Bad, worse, worst
    6. Curious, more curious, most curious
    7. Cheerful, more cheerful, most cheerful
    8. Happy, happier, happiest
    9. Wrong: There are no comparative or superlative forms for

    wrong.
    10. Far, further, furthest

    CHAPTER 5

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    5a. In the following sentences, mark the underlined words to classify them as adjectives (ADJ) or adverbs (ADV). Count the articles a, an, and the as adjectives. The adverbs here modify verbs only.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    ADJ ADJ ADJ ADJ

    The smaller child learned the simplest tasks.

    ADJ ADV The child learns eagerly.

    ADV ADJ ADJ ADJ
    John almost had an answer to the difficult question.

    ADV ADJ
    Father always encourages realistic thinking.

    ADJ ADJ ADV ADJ ADJ
    The furious family did not wait to see the busy manager.

    ADJ ADJ ADJ ADV A thick, wet snow fell softly.

    ADV ADJ ADJ ADJ ADJ ADJ
    Silently, a strange man in a black cape stood in the shadows.

    5b. Write the comparative and superlative forms of these adverbs; use a dictionary when you need to.

    1. Fast, faster, fastest
    2. Quickly, more quickly, most quickly

    3. Slowly, more slowly, most slowly
    4. Angrily, more angrily, most angrily
    5. Carefully, more carefully, most carefully 6. Well, better, best
    7. Badly, worse, worst
    8. Early, earlier, earliest
    9. Far, farther, farthest
    10. Often, more often, most often

    5c. In these sentences, classify the underlined adverbs: Do they modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs?

    1. Your mistake was a very small one. (Modifies the adjective small.)

    2. He does well when he tries hard. (Well modifies the verbs does; hard modifies tries.)

    1. He does quite well when he tries. (Modifies the adverb well.)
    2. The secretary’s notes are evidently missing. (Modifies the

      verb missing.)

    3. Now we finally have the notes. (Both now and finally modify

      the verb have.)

    4. We took notes rather rapidly, but we could not keep up.

      (Rather modifies the adverb rapidly; rapidly modifies the

      verb took; not modifies the verb keep up.)

    5. We still need good notes. (Modifies the verb need.)

    5d. The underlined adjectives and adverbs have been corrected:

    1. Esther and Ryan play well, but Esther plays better. 2. By sunset we will have hiked ten miles or farther.
    3. The library has the most complete book on baseball. 4. Bob was the only student left behind.

    5. Finally we reached the motel.
    6. Be really careful on this highway. 7. We saw that Bart looked sad.

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    8. Bart was looking sadly at his wrecked car.
    9. Bart was feeling sad on his way home.
    10. In the lab, we measured the results as precisely as we could.

    CHAPTER 6

    6a. In the following sentences underline the prepositional phrases and double-underline the preposition. Some sentences contain more than one prepositional phrase. If you need to, refer to the lists of prepositions in this chapter.

    1. In the morning, I drink coffee with cream.
    2. As a rule, I never put sugar in it.
    3. Amid cars and trucks, Edwina ran across the street.
    4. I am looking for the owner of this dog.
    5. Are you referring to the dog that is nipping at your leg?
    6. Throughout the book, the author emphasizes the influence

      of history upon our perception of events.

    7. Like Arthur, I walked down the hall and paid no attention to

      the noise within the office.

    8. According to Arthur, the noise out of the office was because

      of an argument between Ed and Grace.

    9. Arthur should not have been left in charge of the office

      during the summer.

    10. In case of further conflicts, we should make plans regarding

    appropriate training for all employees.

    6b. After you finish Exercise 6a, go back through the ten sentences above and decide if the prepositional phrases are adjectival (ADJ) or adverbial (ADV), and label them accordingly.

    ADV ADJ
    1. In the morning, I drink coffee with cream.

    ADV ADV

    2. As a rule, I never put sugar in it.
    ADV ADV

    3. Amid cars and trucks, Edwina ran across the street.

    ADV ADV
    4. I am looking for the owner of this dog.

    ADV ADV

    1. Are you referring to the dog that is nipping at your leg?

      ADV

    2. Throughout the book, the author emphasizes the influence

    ADJ ADJ ADJ
    of history upon our perception of events.

    ADV ADV
    7. Like Arthur, I walked down the hall and paid no attention

    ADJ ADJ
    to the noise within the office.

    ADV ADJ
    8. According to Arthur, the noise out of the office was

    ADV ADJ
    because of an argument between Ed and Grace.

    ADV ADJ
    9. Arthur should not have been left in charge of the office

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    ADV

    during the summer.

    ADV ADJ
    10. In case of further conflicts, we should make plans

    ADJ ADJ regarding appropriate training for all employees.

    CHAPTER 7

    7a. In this exercise, you need to write five versions of the same short sentence. Each version will use a different pronoun.

    First read the pronouns in the parentheses after each sentence. Then, for each pronoun, find the correct case to insert into the blank. Consult the pronoun tables in this chapter if you need to.

    The answers are italicized:

    1. You can go with _____. (I, he, we, they, she): me, him, us, them, her

    2. We will take _____ to the mall. (he, she, they, you): him, her, them, you

    3. _____ can go with me. (him, her, you, them, us): He, She, You, They, We

    4. That isn’t your book. It’s _____. (I, he, we, they, she): mine, his, ours, theirs, hers

    5. We won’t go to your place. We’ll go to _____ place. (I, he, we, they, she): my, his, our, their, her

    7b. Write the pronoun that is specified by the terms. Usually only one pronoun is possible for each exercise. Consult the pronoun tables when you need to.

    1. First-person objective singular: me

    2. First-person objective plural: us
    3. Second-person nominative singular (or plural): you 4. Feminine third-person nominative singular: she
    5. Third-person nominative plural: they
    6. Third-person objective singular: him, her, or it.
    7. Third-person objective plural: them
    8. First-person nominative plural: we
    9. First-person possessive singular: my or mine
    10. Neuter third-person nominative singular: it

    7c. Classify the following pronouns according to person, case, and number. With the third-person singular pronouns, also classify gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter). Consult the tables when necessary.

    1. My (First-person possessive singular)
    2. He (Third-person nominative masculine singular) 3. Him (Third-person objective masculine singular)
    4. Its (Third-person possessive neuter singular)
    5. Yours (Second-person possessive singular or plural) 6. We (First-person nominative plural)
    7. Us (First-person objective plural)
    8. Our (First-person possessive plural)
    9. They (Third-person nominative plural)
    10. Them (Third-person objective plural)

    7d. In the following sentences, identify and correct carelessly used pronouns. In the answers below, corrected words are underlined, and correct sentences are unchanged.

    1. If anyone sees a problem, please report it immediately.
    2. Neither excessive heat nor cold will damage the crop unless

      the extreme weather lasts for weeks.

    3. It’s time to study grammar.
    4. If you want to do well in this course, you should be prepared

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    to work hard.

    1. Each of these books has its correct place on the shelves.
    2. Jerry was helped to his apartment by Jim.
    3. Medical doctors need to know their science well.
    4. Our dog has something in its paw.
    5. The car needs a new transmission, and the tires need

      replacing, but I only paid five hundred dollars for it.

    10. As the bicyclists sped by the crowd, some bikers nearly hit

    onlookers.
    7e. Complete the following tables for the simple tenses of the verb

    to be.
    Simple tenses:

    Singular Present

    Past

    I was You were He was

    Past

    We were You were They were

    Future

    I will be You will be He will be

    Future

    We will be You will be They will be

    1st person 2nd person 3rd person

    Plural

    1st person 2nd person 3rd person

    I am You are He is

    Present

    We are You are They are

    7f. Complete the following table for the perfect tenses of the verb to be. Also provide pronouns as subjects of the verbs.

    Singular Present Past Future
    1st person I have been I had been I will have been

    2nd person You have been You had been You will have been 3rd person He has been He had been He will have been

    7g. Complete the following tables for the progressive and perfect progressive tenses of the verb to be. Also provide pronouns as subjects of the verbs.

    Progressive

    Singular Present

    Past

    I was being You were being She was being

    Past

    I had been being

    You had been being

    She had been being

    Future

    I will be being You will be being She will be being

    Future

    I will have been being

    You will have been being

    She will have been being

    Answer Key | 265

    1st person 2nd person 3rd person

    I am being You are being She is being

    Perfect Progressive

    Singular

    1st person 2nd person 3rd person

    Present

    I have been being

    You have been being

    She has been being

    CHAPTER 8

    8a. In the following sentences, fill in the blanks with one word: always, never, or sometimes.

    1. Sentences with action verbs sometimes have a complement. 2. Sentences with linking verbs always have a complement. 3. Sentences with intransitive verbs never have a complement. 4. Sentences with transitive verbs always have a complement. 5. Sentences with transitive verbs always have a direct object.

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    6. Sentences with transitive verbs sometimes have an indirect object.

    7. Sentences with linking verbs sometimes have a predicate nominative.

    8.Sentences with transitive verbs never have a predicate adjective.

    9. Sentences with linking verbs sometimes have a predicate adjective.

    10. Sentences with transitive verbs sometimes have an object complement.

    11. Sentences with linking verbs never have an object complement.

    12. Sentences with linking verbs never have a direct object.

    8b. In the sentences below, identify the complements and classify them as a direct object, an indirect object, a predicate adjective, a predicate nominative, or an object complement.

    1. My daughter made me proud. Direct object, object complement

    1. My aunt brought me a souvenir. Indirect object, direct object
    2. My sister is late. Predicate adjective
    3. Both my sisters are teachers. Predicate nominative
    4. Both my sisters are arriving at noon. No complement
    5. Six hours a day, Ruthie practices the accordion. Direct object
    6. Ruthie practices for hours every day. No complement
    7. We sent Bill and Sue a gift. Indirect object, direct object

    9. They were kind and grateful. Compound predicate adjective 10. I will address that issue at another time. Direct object

    11. That fellow became our assistant. Predicate nominative 12. Bonnie bought Ed that painting. Indirect object, direct

    object

    8c. Now go back through the sentences above and identify the verbs as linking, transitive, or intransitive.

    1. My daughter made me proud. Transitive
    2. My aunt brought me a souvenir. Transitive
    3. My sister is late. Linking
    4. Both my sisters are teachers. Linking
    5. Both my sisters are arriving at noon Intransitive
    6. Six hours a day, Ruthie practices the accordion. Transitive 7. Ruthie practices for hours every day. Intransitive
    8. We sent Bill and Sue a gift. Transitive
    9. They were kind and grateful. Linking
    10. I will address that issue at another time. Transitive
    11. That fellow became our assistant. Linking
    12. Bonnie bought Ed that painting. Transitive

    CHAPTER 9

    9a. Try to write, from memory, the seven coordinating conjunc- tions. (A hint: Remember FANBOYS.) Check your answers with the list in this chapter.

    for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

    9b. Try to write, from memory, the four correlative coordinating conjunctions. Check your answers with the list in this chapter.

    Either...or;neither...nor;notonly...butalso;both...and

    9c. Try to write, from memory, ten of the subordinating conjunctions, and consult the chapter to check your answers.

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    after
    although
    as
    because
    before
    however
    if
    lest until

    once when since whenever than where that wherever though whereas till whether

    unless

    while

    9d. In the following sentences, underline and classify the conjunctions as coordinating (C) or subordinating (S) and put brackets around any prepositions. Refer to the lists in this chapter and the previous chapter if you need to. Classify correlative conjunctions as coordinating.

    Here’s an example:

    C

    [In] the following sentences, underline and classify the conjunctions CC

    [as] coordinating or subordinating and put brackets [around] any prepositions.

    CCC

    1. The film was not only boring, but also offensive, so we asked

      C
      [for] a refund and went home.

      C

    2. [In] the morning and again [in] the evening, Ruthie

      S
      practices her violin until her mother can’t stand it anymore.

    C

    1. We went [to] the diner [for] lunch, for we were expected

      back soon.

      SS

    2. Because we are tired, we’ll take a short break before we continue studying.

      CS

    3. Fred and George have been gone [since] Friday night, since they took a “short break” [from] studying.

      SC

    4. After I finish this project, we can meet [after] work and discuss the project.

      CCCC

    5. Frank and George are neither punctual nor organized, yet they somehow do their work well.

      SS

    6. He was so confident that he underestimated his opponent.

      S

    7. The room looked as if it had not been occupied [in] some

      CC
      time, but it had been occupied [for] days or weeks.

      No conjunctions

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    10. The longer he waited, the more impatient he became.

    9e. In the following sentences, identify and label compound subjects, compound verbs, compound predicates, and other compound structures, but not clauses.

    1. Anne always fastens her seatbelt and locks her doors before she drives. Compound predicate
    2. Anne and James are driving to Nashville and Chattanooga.

      Compound subject and compound object of the preposition

    3. In Nashville, Anne shopped and visited her family.

      Compound predicate

    4. She and I always enjoy Nashville, but seldom get to go there.

      Compound subject and compound predicate

    5. compounds here
    6. In Illinois, we will visit the Lincoln Museum and the Lincoln Library. Compound direct object.
    7. We will stop in Wisconsin or Minnesota for the night.

      Compound object of the preposition in.

    8.In Minnesota we will ski and visit family. Compound

    predicate.
    9. Anne and her sister Alice love skiing. Compound subject. 10. In cold weather, James stays indoors and reads. Compound

    predicate.

    CHAPTER 10

    10a. Go back to the beginning pages of this chapter and reread the definitions of an independent clause, a dependent clause, and a sentence. Then try to write the three definitions from memory, and use the book to check your work.

    An independent clause contains at least one subject

    and at least one predicate, and it contains no word (like a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun) that makes the clause dependent on another clause to be complete.

    A dependent clause contains at least one subject and at least one predicate, and it is not grammatically complete by itself.

    A sentence is a unit of language that contains at least one independent clause. It may also contain one or more dependent clauses.

    10b. Classify the following sentences according to their structures. Each sentence will be simple, compound, complex, or compound- complex. Refer to the definitions in this chapter when you need to.

    1. My family owned a cocker spaniel when I was young.

    Complex

    1. Before the meeting, we will set up the room, and you should prepare the refreshments. Compound
    2. Before the meeting begins, we will set up the room, and you should prepare the refreshments. Compound-complex
    3. He has done well since graduation, and he credits his success to the university. Compound
    4. As if he is the supervisor. Fragment
    5. Since graduation, when he began working here, while Arthur

      was the supervisor of both departments. Fragment

    6. Louise and Sharon went to the garage and found their car.

      Simple

    8. Either Arthur and Gwyn find a way to solve this problem themselves, or they must seek help. Compound

    9. Both spring and fall are their favorite seasons for camping and fishing in the mountains. Simple

    10. We sat nervously as we waited for our interviews. Complex 11. During our interviews, the applicants occasionally

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    answered poorly, but in general they did well. Compound 12. After they left the office, they returned, for Louise had

    forgotten her portfolio. Compound-complex

    10c. Return to the sentences in 10b, and identify the complete subjects and predicates in all the clauses of all the complete sentences. Put subjects in brackets and underline predicates.

    1. [My family] owned a cocker spaniel when [I] was young.
    2. Before the meeting, [we] will set up the room, and [you]

      should prepare the refreshments.

    3. Before [the meeting] begins, [we] will set up the room, and

      [you] should prepare the refreshments.

    4. [He] has done well since graduation, and [he] credits his

      success to the university.

    5. This is a fragment sentence.
    6. This is also a fragment sentence.

    7. [Louise and Sharon] went to the garage and found their car. 8. Either [Arthur and Gwyn] find a way to solve this problem

    themselves, or [they] must seek help.
    9. [Both spring and fall] are their favorite seasons for camping

    in the mountains and fishing.
    10. [We] sat nervously as [we] waited for our interviews.
    11. During the interviews, [the applicants] occasionally

    answered poorly, but in general [they] did well.
    12. After [they] left the office, [they] returned, for [Louise] had

    forgotten her portfolio.

    10d. Classify the following sentences according to their purposes: Each sentence will be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. (Don’t worry about possible implicit meanings.) Refer to the definitions in this chapter when you need to.

    1. What a mess! Exclamatory

    2. What are you shouting about? Interrogative
    3. I forgot my portfolio, and now the office is closed. Declarative 4. Just relax and get it tomorrow. Imperative
    5. Listen! Imperative
    6. The boys’ choir is singing. Imperative
    7. What music those children make! Exclamatory
    8. Didn’t Count Dracula say that once? Interrogative
    9. Are you comparing the boys’ choir to wolves? Interrogative 10. Stop twisting my words! Imperative

    CHAPTER 11

    11a. Underline the relative clauses in the following sentences. Double-underline the relative pronouns. Locate the nouns modified by each relative clause and enclose them in square brackets. Remember that some uses of that are not relative pronouns. You’ll see an example here.

    1. The [house] that is being renovated was my grandmother’s home.
    2. Please get the [book], which I left in my office.
    3. You can give that letter to the [man] who is waiting outside.
    4. The [woman] whose car you dented wants to speak to you.
    5. The [man] who is waiting already has that letter that you left

      in your office.

    6. The [customer] whom you phoned is waiting in the office.
    7. I know the [man] to whom they spoke.

    11b. Underline the relative clauses in the following sentences. Double-underline the relative adverbs. Locate the nouns modified by each relative clause and enclose them in square brackets.

    1. The [house] where he was born is on Fifth Street.
    2. In [April 1943], when he was born, his parents were living

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    and working in the city.

    1. Spring is the [season] when I am happiest, and home is the

      [place] where all of us are most comfortable.

    2. [Marceline], where Walt Disney grew up, is a small town in

      northern Missouri.

    3. In [1911], when his family moved to Kansas City, Disney left

      Marceline.

    11c. Rewrite each of the following pairs of sentences as a single sentence with a relative clause. Make the second sentence the relative clause. Underline the relative clause in each new sentence.

    A reminder: The relative pronouns are who, whom, whose, which, and that.

    1. That man who is standing over there is my neighbor. 2. I like the car that you rented today.
    3. The woman whom you called earlier is at the door. 4. The dog that I lost has been found.

    5. My mother, who loves old movies, is watching Casablanca.

    11d. Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence with a relative clause. Make the second sentence the relative clause. Underline the relative clause in each new sentence.

    1. Gary, Indiana, where I was born, is a pleasant small city.
    2. I walked down the street where she lives.
    3. Christmas is a wonderful time of year when my entire family

      gathers together.

    4. There is the hospital where I was born.
    5. The book is in the living room where Ron is reading.

    CHAPTER 12

    12a. In the following sentences, identify the functions of each

    underlined nominal clause.

    1. I know why you did that. Direct object
    2. I can’t imagine what they will do next or who will do it.

    Compound direct object
    3. When they arrive is unknown. Subject
    4. You already know that they don’t know the area well. Direct

    object

    1. Why they come here is a mystery. Subject
    2. The professor is writing a book about how people improve

      their writing. Object of a preposition

    3. Whether he will succeed is what we are all wondering.

      Subject and predicate nominative

    8. He discussed why climate change is happening. Direct object 9. When he arrives, I will tell him when we are leaving. Direct

    object

    12b. In the following sentences, underline the nominal clauses and then identify their functions in each sentence.

    1. The statement summarizes what he is saying. Direct object 2. We will learn if tickets are still available. Direct object
    3. When we will meet is the next topic. Subject
    4. I have a question about who broke the equipment. Object of

    the preposition
    5. I will tell whoever is interested about the news. Direct object 6. I don’t know why he left. Direct object
    7. His claim was that he was abducted by aliens. Predicate

    nominativeHis wife made him what he is today. Object complementI don’t think that we should blame that on his wife. Direct object

    8. We were taught that anything that is worth doing is worth doing well. [This is complicated: The underlined clause is a

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    Direct object. But the shorter clause that is worth doing is a relative clause modifying anything.]

    CHAPTER 13

    13a. In the following sentences, classify the underlined dependent clauses as either subordinate or nominal.

    1. I will see if we have any milk. Nominal
    2. I will go to the store if we are out of milk. Subordinate
    3. Whether or not we are out of milk, I will go to the store.

    Subordinate

    1. I wonder whether we are out of milk. Nominal
    2. I go to the store when we are out of milk. Subordinate
    3. I will know whether we are out of milk. Nominal
    4. I can’t understand how we could be out of milk. Nominal
    5. I don’t know why we are out of milk. Nominal

    9. Why we are out of milk is what I want to know. Nominal 10. I told you that we would run out of milk. Nominal

    13b. In this next set, identify the dependent clauses and classify them as either subordinate or nominal.

    1. Go see if Jim is here. Nominal
    2. We will start dinner if Jim is here. Subordinate
    3. If Jim is here, we can have dinner. Subordinate
    4. If Jim is here is what I want to know. Two nominals
    5. I need to know whether Jim has arrived. Nominal
    6. Whether or not he has arrived, we will now have dinner.

    Subordinate
    7. When Jim arrives, we will have dinner. Subordinate
    8. I know when Jim will arrive. Nominal.
    9. Please tell me how we can have dinner if Jim is not here.

    Nominal and subordinate

    13c. Classify the underlined dependent clauses as either relative (adjectival) clauses or as nominal clauses:

    1. I know that she likes me. Nominal
    2. That she likes me surprises me. Nominal
    3. That is the class that I want. Relative
    4. That is the class that challenges me. Relative
    5. The people who like me are over there. Relative
    6. I know who likes you. Nominal
    7. What fascinates me is calculus. Nominal
    8. We’ll learn why spring begins. Nominal
    9. The day when spring begins is next week. Relative 10. I know the place where I can enroll. Relative

    13d. Identify the dependent clauses in these sentences and classify them as relative (adjectival) clauses or nominal clauses:

    1. I know who that is. Nominal
    2. I will take the book that is least expensive. Relative 3. There is the fellow whom I’ve met before. Relative 4. I know whom you spoke with. Nominal
    5. There is the woman who hired me. Relative
    6. The dog that bit me is in that yard. Relative
    7. Who steals my purse steals my gum. Nominal
    8. I have learned what the answer is. Nominal

    13e. Identify the dependent clauses in the following sentences and classify them as relative or as subordinate. Some sentences have two dependent clauses:

    1. Because it is late, we will wait until tomorrow to see the movie that you want to see. Subordinate, Relative

    2. When we saw The Martian, we enjoyed the story about

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    the space traveler who is marooned alone on a planet.

    Subordinate, Relative

    3. We were quite surprised by the film that we saw last night

    Relative
    4. This is the theatre where we saw that film. Relative
    5. Is this the time when the next film is shown? Relative
    6. You should tell your friends when you see a good film.

    Subordinate

    7. Where I come from, we have several good movie theatres.

    Subordinate

    13f. Finally, here’s an exercise that will help you bring together all the concepts in this chapter. Identify the dependent clauses in the following sentences and classify them as relative, as subordinate, or as nominal clauses:

    1. The place that we call home is Peoria. Relative
    2. I must see if they are here. Nominal
    3. I know that they have arrived. Nominal
    4. I read an article about the accident that we saw yesterday.

    Relative

    1. We will see if the storm will hit. Nominal
    2. If the storm hits, we will be ready. Subordinate
    3. I know the time when they will arrive. Relative
    4. The town where I was born is very small. Relative

    9. I wonder where he was born. Nominal
    10. I will go to the airport when he arrives. Subordinate
    11. Whether we want to go or not, we must be at the airport.

    Subordinate
    12. I do not know whether he will be on the plane. Nominal

    CHAPTER 14

    14a. Rewrite the following passive-voice sentences as active-voice

    sentences, as in this example:

    PASSIVE: I was given a prescription by my doctor. ACTIVE: My doctor gave me a prescription last night.

    1. Your letter was received by me. ACTIVE: I received your letter.
    2. I was made happy by your letter. ACTIVE: Your letter made me happy.
    3. I was given instructions today by my supervisor. ACTIVE: My supervisor gave me instructions today.
    4. My last essay was given a C by my English teacher. ACTIVE: My English teacher gave my last essay a C.
    5. I was seen at the mall by Cheryl. ACTIVE: Cheryl saw me at the mall.
    6. The mail was delivered by the postman at noon. ACTIVE: The postman delivered the mail at noon.
    7. After the symphony was played beautifully by the orchestra, the composer was praised by the critics.

      ACTIVE: After the orchestra played the symphony beautifully, the critics praised the composer.

    14b. In the passive sentences above, locate, underline, and identify the passive complements: the direct object (DO), the predicate adjective (PA), and the predicate nominate (PN), as in this example:

    DO

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    PASSIVE: I was given a prescription by my doctor last night.

    No complement

    1. Your letter was received by me.

      PA

    2. I was made happy by your letter.

      DO

    3. I was given instructions today by my supervisor.

      DO

    4. My last essay was given a C by my English teacher.

      No complement

    5. I was seen at the mall by Cheryl.

      No complement

    6. The mail was delivered by the postman at noon.

      No complement

    7. After the symphony was played beautifully by the orchestra, the composer was praised by the critics.

    14c. Distinguish phrasal verbs from verbs followed by prepositional phrases, as in these examples:

    I’ll turn on the television. [Phrasal verb]

    That new car can turn on a dime. [Verb and prepositional phrase]

    1. We’ll turn off the highway at the next exit. [Verb and prepositional phrase]

      Please turn off the radio. [Phrasal verb]

    2. The news comes on at 10 pm. [Phrasal verb]
      The gifts came on Christmas Eve. [Verb and prepositional phrase]
    3. The pumpkin turned into a beautiful coach. [Phrasal verb] We’ll turn into this driveway. [Verb and prepositional phrase]
    4. They took the dresser up the stairs. [Verb and prepositional phrase]

      We will now take up the collection. [Phrasal verb]

    5. He called out to her before she drove away. [Phrasal verb] He called out the window. [Verb and prepositional phrase]

    CHAPTER 15

    15a. What’s the difference in writing between regular plural nouns, possessive nouns, and plural possessive nouns? Write an example that illustrates each category, using words that have regular plurals.

    For example: cats, cat’s, and cats’.

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    Regular plurals take only –s, possessives take an apostrophe followed by –s, and plural possessives take –s, followed by an apostrophe.

    15b. Write plural, singular possessive, and plural possessive forms of the following nouns: woman, ox, church, tomato, piano, medium (e.g., the medium of TV), boss, and octopus.

    Singular

    woman ox church tomato piano medium boss octopus

    Plural

    women oxen churches tomatoes pianos media bosses octopi

    Singular Possessive

    woman’s ox’s church’s tomato’s piano’s medium’s boss’s octopus’s

    Plural Possessive

    women’s oxen’s churches’ tomatoes’ pianos’ media’s bosses’ octopi’s

    15c. In the following sentences, identify the sentences that contain nouns of address, appositives, and expletives, and underline those structures. In sentences with expletives, identify the subject of the sentence. A sentence may contain more than one of these structures. In some cases, the function of the phrase may not be clear within the limited context.

    1. Dr. Kildare, you can speak with my assistant. [Noun of address]
    2. June, speak with my physician, Dr. Kildare. [Noun of address and appositive]
    3. Your brother, Alice, is remarkable. [Noun of address, unless Alice is your brother’s name]
    4. There is rain forecast for tomorrow. [Expletive, and rain is the subject]
    5. It is clear that Ed is a menace. [Expletive: The nominal

    clause that Ed is a menace is the subject.] CHAPTER 16

    16a. Write from memory the eight parts of speech. Then define them and check your work by referring to the early pages of this chapter.

    Nouns: Words that stand for persons, places, things, or ideas.

    Pronouns: Words that take the place of nouns.

    Adjectives: Words that modify nouns or pronouns.

    Verbs: Words that indicate an action or a state of being.

    Adverbs: Words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

    Conjunctions: Words that connect phrases and clauses to other phrases or clauses, indicating some grammatical relationship between the connected units.

    Prepositions: Words that connect a noun or pronoun (the object of the preposition) with other words in the sentence to create adjectival or adverbial phrases.

    Interjections: Exclamatory words and phrases used to express feelings and reactions.

    16b. In the following sentences, use context to identify the form and function of the underlined words.

    1. In the increasingly chaotic country, university students are revolting.

    Form: A verb (present participle).

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    Function: The main verb.

    1. Defend them if you like, but I’m tired of these revolting students.

      Form: A verb (present participle). Function: Adjectival, modifying students.

    2. We were jogging around the block. Form: A verb (present participle). Function: The main verb.
    3. All of us enjoy jogging.
      Form: A verb (present participle).
      Function: Nominal, as the direct object of enjoy.
    4. He will replace the shattered lamp. Form: A verb (past participle). Function: Adjectival, modifying lamp.
    5. He shattered it accidentally. Form: A verb (past participle). Function: The main verb.
    6. This rose bud is for you.
      Form: A preposition.
      Function: Part of the adverbial prepositional phrase for you.
    7. I gave you a rose bud, for I care about you. Form: A coordinating conjunction. Function: Joining two independent clauses.
    8. I wanted to get you more, but I couldn’t afford it. Form: A coordinating conjunction.

    Function: Joining two independent clauses.

    10. I bought you nothing but this rose bud.
    Form: A preposition, synonymous with except. Function: Part of the adjectival prepositional phrase but this rose bud.

    CHAPTER 17

    17a. Identify the functions of the underlined gerunds in these sentences:

    1. Farming is his business. Subject
    2. His business is farming. Predicate nominative
    3. He likes farming. Direct object
    4. He likes raising corn and soy beans. Compound direct object
    5. He will stay with farming. Object of the preposition
    6. His profession, raising corn and soy beans, is a difficult one.

      A compound appositive

    17b. Now locate the gerunds in the following and identify their functions.

    [In these answers the gerund phrases, with modifiers and complements, are underlined.]

    1. His hobby is biking. Predicate nominative
    2. Biking is his hobby. Subject
    3. He is interested in biking. Object of a preposition
    4. His hobby, biking, is a popular one. Appositive
    5. Biking ten miles a day is a challenge. Subject
    6. His goal is biking ten miles a day. Predicate nominative
    7. preposition

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    8. She likes being a patrol officer. Direct object 9. Being a patrol officer is her ideal job. Subject

    17c. Using the guidelines above, classify the gerunds and progressive verbs in the underlined portions of these sentences:

    1. Breathing very cold air can be painful. Gerund
    2. I love baking cookies. Gerund
    3. He found much joy in singing. Gerund
    4. He was singing all the time. Progressive tense verb 5. You learn a lot from reading books. Gerund

    6. When you are driving, time passes quickly. Progressive tense verb

    17d. Do the same thing in the following sentences, in which the gerunds and progressive-tense verbs are not marked for you:

    1. He made a career of programming computers. Gerund 2. I was programming computers. Progressive tense verb 3. Programming is my job. Gerund
    4. I love juggling. Gerund

    5. I am juggling all the time. Progressive tense verb 6. Juggling is what I love to do. Gerund
    7. Once my hobby was juggling. Gerund

    17e. Using the guidelines above, classify the underlined portions of these sentences as participles, as perfect tense verbs, or as progressive tense verbs.

    1. Bob was sleeping for hours. Progressive tense verb
    2. Bob, driven to exhaustion, had to rest. Participle
    3. Martha has driven Bob to work all week. Perfect tense verb 4. Swimming laps, Bob begins his day briskly. Participle
    5. Bob, biking for miles, was exhausted. Participle

    6. Exhausted, Bob nevertheless became intrigued. Participle and participle

    7. Driving to work, Martha saw a red fox. Participle
    17f. Do the same thing in the following sentences, in which the

    participles and verbs are not marked for you:

    1. Snoring loudly, Susan slept through her history class.

      Participle

    2. verb
    3. Driven mad by the noise, Claude threw everything in sight.

      Participle

    4. Claude had not slept for two days. Perfect-tense verb
    5. Claude appeared worn and worried. Participle and participle
    6. Playing the sax, Al woke up the neighbors. Participle
    7. Written for Susan, the instructions ordered her to drop her

      history class. Participle

    17g. Using the guidelines discussed in this chapter, classify the underlined portions of the following sentences as gerunds, as participles, as perfect-tense verbs, or as progressive tense verbs.

    1. His hobby is reading Shakespeare. Gerund
    2. He is always reading Shakespeare. Progressive tense verb 3. Reading Shakespeare aloud, he entranced the audience.

    Participle.

    1. Alicia, reading Shakespeare, ignored the speaker. Participle
    2. Driving at night can be dangerous. Gerund
    3. I don’t like driving at night. Gerund
    4. Driving late at night, Ed was exhausted. Participle
    5. Exhausted, Ed drove on. Participle

    9. Ed was driving three nights a week. Progressive tense verb 10. He has exhausted himself with the driving. Perfect tense

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    verb

    17h. In these sentences, the gerunds, participles, and verbs are not marked for you. Locate and classify the gerunds, participles, perfect tense verbs, and progressive tense verbs:

    1. Seen through the window, the room was a mess. Participle 2. We have seen the traffic through the window. Perfect tense

    verb
    3. My hobby is playing the tuba. Gerund
    4. Bob is playing the tuba. Progressive tense verb
    5.Playing the tuba, Bob disturbed the library patrons.

    Participle
    6. Feeling sick, Gloria went home. Participle
    7. Gloria was feeling sick. Progressive tense verb
    8. Her remarks were about reading Poe. Gerund
    9. Sailing on the lake is Cal’s hobby. Gerund
    10. I like sailing on the lake. Gerund
    11. I am sailing again this summer. Progressive tense verb

    CHAPTER 18

    18a. Identify the function of the nominal infinitives in these sentences:

    1. To become a star was her adolescent dream. Subject
    2. She wants to become a star. Direct object
    3. Her dream, to become a star, may never come true.

    Appositive
    4. To live is to dream. Subject and predicate nominative
    5. To know him is to love him. Subject and predicate

    nominative
    6. I’d like him to do the project. Direct object 7. He’ll ask her to help. Direct object

    8. I’m hoping for them to succeed. Object of a preposition 18b. Locate the nominal infinitive phrases in these sentences and

    identify their functions:

    1. I need to get some water. Direct object
    2. To succeed requires hard work. Subject
    3. To discipline yourself means to make sacrifices. Subject and

    predicate nominative

    4. He explained his goal, to become fluent in German.

    Appositive
    5. He wants to see me in the morning. Direct object
    6. It won’t be hard for him to see me then. Object of a

    preposition
    7. Would you like to see me, too? Direct object
    8. There’s time for me to see you. Object of a preposition

    18c. Identify the functions of the adjectival infinitives in these sentences: What words do they modify?

    1. I have the tools to get the job done. [Modifies tools]
    2. Time to use the tools is what I need now. [Modifies Time]
    3. Something to open the tool packages would be handy now.

      [Modifies Something]

    4. A scissors to open this would be helpful. [Modifies scissors]
    5. I could help if I had some dynamite to open this. [Modifies

      dynamite]

    6. I need a screwdriver to loosen this. [Modifies screwdriver] 7.A screwdriver to loosen this would help. [Modifies

    screwdriver]
    8. The tool I need, a screwdriver to loosen this, is not here.

    [Modifies screwdriver]

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    18d. Locate the adjectival infinitives in these sentences and identify the words they modify:

    1. Every day we send letters, urgent messages to complain about the service. [Modifies messages]

    2. She bought me a carry-on bag to take on my trip. [Modifies bag]

    3. Someone to guide me on the way would be helpful. [Modifies someone]

    1. I found someone to guide you. [Modifies someone]
    2. To relax, he needed a book to interest him. [Modifies book]
    3. All she asked for was a book to read, a place in which to

      stay warm, and something to eat. [Modifies, in order, book, which, and something]

    18e. Identify the functions of the adverbial infinitives in these sentences: What words do they modify?

    1. To relax, he sang. [Modifies sang]
    2. He read the book to please his daughter. [Modifies read]
    3. To please his daughter, he read the book. [Modifies read]
    4. To become a fireman, the young man studied and trained.

      [Modifies studied and trained]

    5. The young man studied and trained to become a fireman.

      [Modifies studied and trained]

    6. He was eager to become a fireman. [Modifies eager]
    7. We were happy to help him. [Modifies happy]
    8. He was careful to speak with me beforehand. [Modifies

      careful]

    18f. Yet again, locate the adverbial infinitives here and identify the words they modify:

    1. You need a telescope to be an astronomer. [Modifies need] 2. He was ready to be an astronomer. [Modifies ready]
    3.She was determined to be an astronomer. [Modifies

    determined]
    4. Eager to play ball, the team waited. [Modifies eager]
    5. Happy to see her friend, Julie cried. [Modifies Happy]
    6. Reluctant to go, the children fidgeted. [Modifies children] 7. We were sorry to leave. [Modifies sorry]
    8. She rose to leave. [Modifies rose]

    18g. Identify all the infinitive phrases, with complements and modifiers, in these sentences and classify them as nominal, adjectival, or adverbial:

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    1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

    That child needs me to look after her. [nominal and a direct object]
    To succeed, you have to work hard. [To succeed is adverbial; to work hard is a direct object]

    I’m looking for a place to sit down. [Adjectival, modifying place]
    To be blunt, I will say that I’m angry at you. [Adverbial, modifying will say]

    He is trying to impress his boss. [Nominal, and a direct object]

    I am not here to impress anyone. [Adverbial, modifying am]

    His reason, to impress his boss, is sufficient. [Nominal, and an appositive]

    His goal is to impress his boss. [nominal and a predicate nominative]

    We want her to come to the party. [nominal and a direct object]

    10. We hope that she’d like to come to the party. [nominal and a direct object]

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    18h. In the following pairs of sentences, read the first sentence and then analyze the underlined verbal phrase in the second, using the first sentence as a clue. Example:

    Randolph likes Italian food. Randolph likes to eat Italian food.

    1. He likes mystery novels.
    He likes to read mystery novels. [The infinitive phrase is the direct object of likes.]

    2. He reads them before school.
    He likes reading them before school. [The gerund phrase is the direct object of likes.]

    3. She is quite ready.
    She is ready to sing. [The infinitive is an adverbial modifier of ready.]

    4. She is very happy.
    She is happy to sing. [The infinitive is an adverbial modifier of happy.]

    5. Smiling, the opera star took center stage.
    Singing the aria loudly, the opera star took center stage. [The participial phrase modifies the opera star.]

    6. He annoys us.
    His singing arias at 6 a.m. annoys us. [The gerund phrase is the subject of the sentence.]

    7. I don’t enjoy opera at 6 a.m.
    I don’t enjoy listening to opera at 6 a.m. [The gerund phrase is the direct object of enjoy.]

    8. I want music at any time.
    I want to listen to opera at any time. [The infinitive phrase is the direct object of want.]

    18i. Identify the underlined verbals as gerunds, participles, and infinitives. Then identify the function that the verbal performs in each sentence.

    1. He likes to read. [Nominal infinitive; direct object]
    2. He likes reading novels. [Gerund; direct object]
    3. Running quickly, he soon arrived at home. [Participle,

      modifying the subject he]

    4. His singing annoyed us. [Gerund; the subject of the sentence]
    5. Known to the entire community, the mayor is respected.

      [Participle, modifying mayor]

    6. The silent film star, seen but never recognized, lived in our

      neighborhood. [Participle, modifying film star]

    7. He wants to earn money. [Nominal infinitive; direct object]
    8. He writes to learn. [Adverbial infinitive, modifying writes]
    9. They were prepared to fight. [Adverbial infinitive, modifying

      were prepared]

    10. To succeed, you must be prepared to work hard. [Two

    adverbial infinitives, both modifying must be prepared] CHAPTER 19

    19a. We’ve examined four classes of pronouns in this chapter. Write the names of the four classes and check your list by looking back through the chapter.

    The four classes are demonstrative, reflexive, indefinite, and interrogative

    19b. Now, for each of the four classes, write as many pronouns

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    as you can remember. Check your lists by looking back and write down those you forgot.

    Demonstrative: That, this, these, and those.

    Reflexive: All the –self pronouns, like myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, and oneself.

    Indefinite (of any kind): All, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, enough, everybody, everyone, everything, few, less, little, more, much, nobody, no one, nothing, plenty, several, some, somebody, someone, something; one and none, either and neither.

    Interrogative: Who, what, which, whom, whose; whoever, whomever, whatever, and whichever.

    19c. Write one sentence that contains an example of each of the four classes you listed above. Compare your sentences with the examples in this chapter.

    [The following are merely a few examples of sentences you might have written.]

    Demonstrative: That chair belongs on this side of the room. Reflexive: Move the chair yourself.
    Indefinite (of any kind): I won’t move anything. Interrogative: Who do you think you are?

    19d. Each of the following sentences contains at least one example of the pronouns described in this chapter. Classify each underlined example.

    1. What are you doing? Interrogative 2. Who wants to know? Interrogative

    3.That is the dumbest question anyone ever asked.

    Demonstrative; indefinite

    4. I myself am going to teach you some manners because you obviously have none. Reflexive; indefinite

    5. Both of you need to stop this immediately. Indefinite; demonstrative

    6. I doubt that you can do anything to stop us. Indefinite
    7. Whatever could you do? Interrogative
    8. Anybody who tries to stop me is going to get it. Indefinite;

    indefinite
    9.Can’t someone do something to help me? Indefinite;

    indefinite
    10. I’ve had enough of all of you. Indefinite; indefinite

    CHAPTER 20

    20a. In the following multiple-choice questions, classify the underlined words. You will use some answers more than once; you may not need some answers at all.

    A. Expletive
    B. Noun of direct address C. Appositive
    D. Subject of the sentence E. Sentence modifier

    1. It was surprising to hear the news. A
    2. It was surprising to hear the news. D
    3. It is time to go. A
    4. Gosh, John, you forgot your shoes. B
    5. Frankly, John often forgets his shoes. E
    6. It is amazing that you forgot your shoes. A
    7. You can speak with Mr. Smith, the principal. C
    8. Truly, Mr. Smith is a patient man. [Arguably E, a sentence

      modifier, but this could simply be a moveable adverb: Mr. Smith is truly a patient man.]

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    296 | Brehe’s Grammar Anatomy

    20b. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into a single elliptical sentence using the subordinating conjunction than. Be careful about pronoun cases.

    1. You dance better. I dance.

    (Use the word dance only once.)

    You dance better than I. [dance].

    2. I like him.
    I like her better.
    (Use the words I like only once.)

    I like her better than [I like] him.

    3. She likes him better. I like him.

    (Omit only the words like him.)

    She likes him better than I [like him].
    20c. Underline the absolute phrases in the following sentences:

    The sun having set, we walked home.
    Our faces wet and cold, we arrived at my parents’ house.

    20d. Now combine the following pairs of sentences into single sentences, rewriting the first sentence as an absolute phrase. Underline the absolute phrase:

    Our time was running short. We hurried to the station. Our time running short, we hurried to the station.

    Her suitcase was safely stowed away. June finally relaxed. Her suitcase safely stowed away, June finally relaxed.

    Our last obstacle was overcome. We all relaxed. Our last obstacle overcome, we all relaxed.

    20e. List the five moods of verbs.

    Indicative Conditional Interrogative Subjunctive Imperative

    20f. List the nine modal auxiliaries.

    can could must shall should may will would might

    CHAPTER 21

    21a. In the following sentences, place a comma wherever necessary.

    1. Stephen Colbert, the irreverent late-night host, often pokes fun at political leaders.
    2. Ralph Ellison’s only completed novel, Invisible Man, won the National Book Award.
    3. The rescue workers, exhausted and discouraged, stared at the rubble without speaking.
    4. You can go when you are finished, or you can stay and ask questions.
    5. When you are finished, you can go, or you can stay and ask questions. [The first comma is optional.]
    6. “He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.” (The Declaration of Independence.)

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    298 | Brehe’s Grammar Anatomy

    7. The long, twisting, and muddy road led to an abandoned car. 8. That movie, which I’ve seen before, is too violent for me.
    9. He thought New York City, New York, was the greatest city

    on earth.
    10. I have been working hard on my writing, and I hope to do

    better in my next English class.
    11. November 22, 1963, is a day most Baby Boomers remember

    clearly.
    21b. Which sentence below is unfair to teenaged drivers?

    Restrictive: Teenaged drivers who drive like maniacs should lose their licenses.

    Non-restrictive: Teenaged drivers, who drive like maniacs, should lose their licenses.

    Probably the second one is unfair, because its punctuation indicates that all teenaged drivers drive like maniacs. The first says that only those who drive like maniacs should lose their licenses.

    Which sentence below is unfair to grammarians?

    Restrictive: Grammarians who are always correcting other people’s grammar should be thrown out a second-story window.

    Non-restrictive: Grammarians, who are always correcting other people’s grammar, should be thrown out a second-story window.

    Probably both, because neither group really deserves to be thrown out a window. (Really.) But the second is more unfair, because it indicates that all grammarians are always correcting

    people.

    21c. Insert a colon or semi-colon where necessary or correct a mistake.

    1. He was fired yesterday; he simply wasn’t doing his job.
    2. The boss offered only one explanation: he simply wasn’t

      doing his job. [A semi-colon would work here, too.]

    3. A main clause contains a subject and a predicate; it can stand alone as a complete sentence. [A colon would work

      here, too.]

    4. A main clause is easy to define: it contains a subject and a

      predicate and can stand alone as a complete sentence.

    5. Some interesting Southern expressions include tote, y’all, and schlimozel. [The colon after include should be deleted.]
    6. Southern expressions.

    21d. Correct punctuation in these quotations as necessary.

    1. My mother had a great deal of trouble with me,” wrote Mark Twain, but I think she enjoyed it.”
    2. Elbert Hubbard wrote, Your friend is the man who knows all about you and still likes you.”

    3.“Senator Phogbound has an evasive word for everything,” Jones wrote. “When he was caught tapping into his campaign funds, he called it a possible error.’”

    21e. Add or correct punctuation wherever necessary.

    1. When theres a snow day, we typically dont have to make it up unless weve had many of them.
    2. Its always a relief after youve finished a research paper and

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    300 | Brehe’s Grammar Anatomy

    turned it in.

    1. St. Louis, Missouri, is Charles’s home, and he returns there

      whenever he can. [According to some style guides, Charles’s

      should be Charles’.]

    2. You can write one independent clause, and its possible to

      add a second with a coordinating conjunction.

    3. This is one independent clause; this is another independent

      clause.

    4. drafting, revision, and exhaustion.
    5. Because its my grandmothers home, Atlanta, Georgia, is

      my favorite city, and Orlando, Florida, which is not that far

      from Atlanta, is my favorite vacation spot.

    6. My Aunt Hepatica still believes that Orson Welles’s drama

      The War of the Worlds was real. [According to some style guides, Welles’s should be Welles’.]

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