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1.5: Tall, Dark, and Wordsome -- Adjectives

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    247151
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    MODIFIERS AND PHRASES

    As we saw in Chapter 1, nouns and verbs often have modifiers, words that describe the noun or the verb.

    The following examples are not sentences but only parts of sentences. Here man is the noun; all the other words before and after man are modifiers that restrict the meaning of man in some way:

    The man
    The man in our neighborhood
    The irritable, unfriendly man in our neighborhood

    As we’ve seen before, many modifiers appear immediately before the noun they modify: The, irritable, unfriendly. Some appear after: in our neighborhood.

    This brings us to a common term that we use throughout these chapters: phrase. A phrase is a word or group of words used as a single grammatical unit.

    The three examples above are noun phrases. They contain the noun man and other words and phrases that modify man.

    Each of those noun phrases could be used as a single grammatical unit—for example, as the subject of a sentence. That is, the noun by itself would be the simple subject, and the noun and its modifiers would be the complete subject.

    ADJECTIVES

    Words like irritable and unfriendly are adjectives. Adjectives modify nouns and sometimes pronouns. They describe the noun or place limits on the word’s range of reference. In the following noun phrases, all the underlined words are adjectives:

    The silvery moon The light brown hair Blue skies

    In most cases, adjectives simply describe nouns: tall, short, ripe, rotten, round, perfect, clean, dirty, blank, full, empty, old, new, ancient, medieval, modern, and thousands more.

    THE THREE ARTICLES

    There are only three articles in English: a, an, and the. Articles are always used to modify nouns. Some grammar books treat articles as if they are a separate class of words, but in this book we’ll consider them a small, special subset of adjectives.

    There is some confusion about when to use a and an. We use the article a before a word that begins with a consonant, and use an before a word that begins with a vowel, as in these phrases:

    A child An only child A cheese omelet An omelet

    But we’re sometimes puzzled when we see a and an used in phrases like these:

    A union of concerned citizens An honor to work with you

    So let’s clarify the rules: Use a before a word beginning with a consonant sound (as in a union or a child):

    A unicorn An uninvited guest

    Use an before a word beginning with a vowel sound (as in an honor or an only child):

    A man An honest man

    The important consideration is the first sound (not the first letter) in the word following the article. This includes the first sound in abbreviations: An M.D., a U. S. territory.

    Finally, a and an are called the indefinite articles. The is the only definite article in English, indicating a specific object that we can distinguish from all other objects of the same kind: the last straw.

    ADJECTIVES AND WORD ORDER

    In the noun phrases we’ve seen so far, the adjective appears before the noun. But adjectives can also appear immediately after the noun:

    The old house, dark and foreboding
    The noisy fairground, bright and crowded A glorious sunset, gold and lavender

    Articles are helpful in recognizing other adjectives. Consider this:

    The smaller child learned the simplest tasks.

    The green apples Red sails
    A blue moon

    The gold and lavender sunset Red, white, and blue bunting A yellow traffic light

    When a word appears between an article and a noun, it’s an adjective or another word functioning as an adjective.

    COMMON KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

    There are certain groups of words that we can easily recognize as adjectives. Color words are often adjectives: a blue moon, green apples. (Sometimes, in a different context, color words are nouns: a dark blue, a vivid red.)

    These color words are adjectives:

    There are other descriptive words:

    The new house Impulsive behavior A generous gift

    A sentimental old song Exciting new developments Soft music

    There are adjectives that indicate number or quantity:

    Both friends
    A few corrections Many pages

    One sock Two shirts Three shoes

    Words that show possession are often used as adjectives:

    My mistake Your complaint His insight

    Bob and Ray’s routine Wayne’s help Elizabeth’s reign

    Some question words can be used as adjectives:

    Which room?
    What mess?
    Whose responsibility?

    We’ll say it again: A good desk or online dictionary can help you identify adjectives and other words.

    NOUNS AND VERBS USED ADJECTIVALLY

    Sometimes we build a noun phrase by using nouns or verbs to modify a noun:

    The street noise The squeaking wheel The traffic accident A frozen lake

    In these cases, we say that the noun or verb is used adjectivally, and we’ll look at more cases of these in future chapters.

    COMPARISONS OF ADJECTIVES

    Some adjectives have three forms, which together make the comparison of the adjective:

    Positive

    hot
    cold friendly famous suspicious athletic

    Comparative

    hotter
    colder
    friendlier
    more famous more suspicious more athletic

    Superlative

    hottest
    coldest friendliest
    most famous most suspicious most athletic

    In any comparison of adjectives like these, there is a positive form of the adjective that simply names a quality the noun has: hot, cold, friendly.

    We use the comparative when we’re comparing two—and only two—items, and we use the superlative when we’re comparing three or more:

    Susan is a fast runner.
    Susan is a faster runner than Alice. In fact, she’s the fastest runner of all.

    As we see in these sentences, when we’re comparing one- syllable adjectives (and some two-syllable adjectives), we create the comparative and superlative forms by adding the suffixes –er and –est. See the examples for hot, cold, and friendly in the table of comparisons above.

    When we’re comparing adjectives of three or more syllables (and some two-syllable adjectives), we create the comparative and superlative forms by placing the modifiers more and most before the adjectives. See the examples for famous, suspicious, and athletic in the table above.

    When the comparison of an adjective is formed using the -er and -est suffices or the more and most adverbs, we refer to it as a regular adjective.

    Some two-syllable adjectives, like those below, can take either kind of comparison:

    happy, happier, happiest
    happy, more happy, most happy.

    often, oftener, oftenest
    often, more often, most often

    Many careful writers seem to prefer happy, happier, happiest and often, more often, most often. When in doubt about a comparison, turn to the dictionary. And never use both kinds of comparison with the same word:

    WRONG: Ed is our most hardest working employee.

    Some adjectives that describe absolute qualities cannot be compared logically: We don’t usually say deader or deadest, or more pregnant or most pregnant, unless we’re kidding around. And it usually doesn’t make sense to say more full or most instant or most continuous.

    But sometimes we ignore logic, especially in everyday conversation. Unique (meaning “one of a kind”) is a well-known example. Logically, something is either unique or it isn’t, but people will still say things like this:

    That tire swing in their living room is a very unique feature.

    They mean that it’s an unusual feature. But in everyday conversation (as opposed to professional writing), it seldom matters if you say very unique or most unique.

    Every now and then a careful writer will ignore all of these arguments and compare an absolute quality, and it works. The opening words of the Preamble of the United States Constitution are one such example:

    We, the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union . . . .

    No one we know of has ever objected.

    POINTS FOR WRITERS

    1. Know the irregular adjectives.

    A few adjectives have comparisons that are like clothes you see marked down in the stores: They’re irregular adjectives— they don’t follow the usual patterns. They are some of the most commonly used adjectives, so you probably know most of them already:

    Positive

    bad
    good
    little
    much (or many)

    Comparative

    worse better less more

    Superlative

    worst best least most

    2. Use superlatives correctly.

    Consider this sentence:

    I’ve heard Barbra and Taylor sing. Barbra is the best singer.

    By the strictest rules of usage, we should write Barbra is the better singer, because we’re only comparing two singers. Using the superlative form in a comparison of two is common in casual conversation, but we should try to avoid it in careful writing unless we’re deliberately developing an informal style.

    3. Use hyphens in certain kinds of phrases.

    When we use an entire phrase as an adjective, we typically hyphenate it:

    The four-year-old girl
    A by-the-numbers process The broken-down car
    The short-term solution

    Some cases are a bit more complex. Consider this noun phrase:

    Nineteenth-century and twentieth-century American literature We can remove one word and say the same thing:

    Nineteenth- and twentieth-century American literature

    Notice the hanging hyphen after nineteenth. It enables nineteenth and twentieth to share the second element century. Here’s another example:

    Short- and long-term solutions.

    All the uses of hyphens shown here reflect formal usage. Increasingly, the hyphen is omitted in cases like these in less formal published prose.

    EXERCISES

    4a. Name the three articles.
    4b. Identify the adjectives (including articles) in these sentences and underline them:
    1. The new teacher is waiting in the outer office.

    2. A rainy day could ruin the entire event.

    1. Count Dracula is the tall, pale man in the shadows.
    2. A backyard garden is a wonderful thing.
    3. She wore a red and white dress to the casual party.
    4. I gave my little brother good advice.
    5. She has been a better student this year because of her hard work.
    6. Bob’s idea is the worst idea I’ve heard in a long time.
    7. The point-by-point refutation was a difficult argument to follow.

    10. Two roads lead to his farm.

    11. Which roads are those?

    4c. Give the comparative and superlative forms of these adjectives; use a dictionary when you need it. In some cases, there may be no comparative or superlative forms.

    1. Small

    2. Fast

    3. Bright

    4. Good

    5. Bad

    6. Curious
    7. Cheerful
    8. Happy
    9. Wrong
    10. Far (meaning anything except geographical distance)


    1.5: Tall, Dark, and Wordsome -- Adjectives is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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