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Humanities Libertexts

12.3: Organization

  • Page ID
  • Organizing By Discussing Effects First

    1. Thesis: Obesity in childhood has both immediate and long-term effects on the health of a child as well as his or her well-being.
    2. Effect 1: Immediate Effects
      1. Point 1:Pre-diabetes
      2. Point 2: Joint and Bones Complications
      3. Point 3: Sleep Apnea
      4. Point 4: Psychosocial Issues such as Low Self-Esteem and Stigmatization
    3. Effect 2: Long-term Effects
      1. Point 1:Adult Obesity
      2. Point 2: High Risk of Heart Disease
      3. Point 3: High Risk for Several Types of Cancer
    4. Causes
      1. Overeating and/or Poor Diet
      2. Lack of Physical Activity
      3. Psychosocial Issues, such as Depression
      4. Societal Factors e. Mass Media
    5. Conclusion

    Organizing By Discussing Causes First

    1. Thesis: Childhood obesity is caused by a number of factors including dietary habits, physical inactivity, depression, societal factors, and mass media.
    2. Cause 1: Societal Factors
      1. Lack of Access to Healthy Alternatives
      2. Fewer Open Spaces for Physical Activities
      3. Increased Dependence on Cars
    3. Cause 2: Mass Media
      1. Marketing of Junk Food Toward Adolescents
    4. Cause 3: Dietary Habits
      1. Point 1:Poor Nutrition
      2. Point 2: Overeating
    5. Cause 4: Physical Inactivity
      1. Point 1: Increase in Sedentary Activities (computer browsing, video-gaming, television)
      2. Point 2: Lack of Physical Education and/or Activities
    6. Cause 5: Depression and other Emotional Issues
      1. Food as Coping Mechanism
      2. Withdrawal from Society and Activity
    7. Effects
      1. Pre-diabetes/Diabetes
      2. Joint/Bone Complications
      3. Sleep Apnea
      4. Psychosocial Issues such as Low Self-Esteem or Depression
      5. Adult Obesity
      6. Increased Risk of Heart Diseases and Cancers
    8. Conclusion

    The organizational structure you choose depends on the nature of the topic, your purpose, and your audience.

    Regardless of which structure you choose, be sure to explain and support each element of the essay fully and completely. Explaining complex relationships requires the full use of evidence, such as scientific studies, expert testimony, statistics, and anecdotes.

    Because cause-and-effect essays determine how phenomena are linked, they make frequent use of certain words and phrases that denote such linkage.

    Phrases of Causation
    as a result consequently
    because due to
    hence since
    thus therefore


    Be careful of resorting to empty speculation. In writing, speculation amounts to unsubstantiated guessing. Writers are particularly prone to such trappings in cause-and-effect arguments due to the complex nature of finding links between phenomena. Be sure to have clear evidence to support the claims that you make.

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