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4.2: Narration

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  • Page ID
    4532
  • Skills to Develop

    • Determine the purpose and structure of narrative writing
    • Understand how to write a narrative essay

    The Purpose of Narrative Writing

    Narration means the art of storytelling, and the purpose of narrative writing is to tell stories. Anytime you tell a story to a friend or family member about an event or incident in your day, you engage in a form of narration.

    A narrative can be factual or fictional. A factual story is one that is based on, and tries to be faithful to, actual events as they unfolded. A fictional story is made up, or imagined; the writer of a fictional story can create characters and events as he or she sees fit. Biographies and memoirs are examples of factual stories; novels and short stories are examples of fictional stories.

    Tip

    Because the line between fact and fiction can often blur, it is helpful to understand what your purpose is from the beginning. Is it important that you recount history, either your own or someone else’s? Or does your interest lie in reshaping the world in your own image—either how you would like to see it or how you imagine it could be? Your answers will go a long way in shaping the stories you tell.

    Ultimately, whether the story is fact or fiction, narrative writing tries to relay a series of events in an emotionally engaging way. You want your audience to be moved by your story, which could mean through humour, sympathy, fear, anger, and so on. The more clearly you tell your story, the more emotionally engaged your audience is likely to be.

    Exercise 4.1

    On a sheet of paper, start brainstorming ideas for writing a narrative. First, decide whether you want to write a factual or fictional story. Then, freewrite for five minutes. Be sure to use all five minutes and keep writing the entire time. Do not stop and think about what to write.

    The following are some topics to consider to help you get going:

    Childhood
    School
    Adventure
    Work
    Love
    Family
    Friends
    Vacation
    Nature
    Space

    Take your free writing and start crafting it chronologically into a rough plot summary. Be sure to use the time transition words and phrases listed in Table 4.1: Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time to sequence the events.

    CollaborationPlease share with a classmate and compare your rough plot summaries.What feedback or other ideas can you suggest to your partner?

    The Structure of a Narrative Essay

    Major narrative events are most often conveyed in chronological order, the order in which events unfold from first to last. Stories typically have a beginning, a middle, and an end, and these events are typically organized by time. Using transitional words and phrases help to keep the reader oriented in the sequencing of a story. Some of these phrases are listed in Table 4.1: Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time.

    Table 4.1 - Transitional Words and Phrases for Expressing Time
    after/afterward as soon as at last before
    currently during eventually meanwhile
    next now since soon
    finally later still then
    until when/whenever while first, second, third

    The following are the basic components of a narrative:

    Plot. The events as they unfold in sequence.

    Character. The people who inhabit the story and move it forward. Typically, there are minor characters and main characters. The minor characters generally play supporting roles to the main character, or the protagonist.

    Conflict. The primary problem or obstacle that unfolds in the plot that the protagonist must solve or overcome by the end of the narrative. The way in which the protagonist resolves the conflict of the plot results in the theme of the narrative.

    Theme. The ultimate message the narrative is trying to express; it can be either explicit or implicit.

    Writing at Work

    When interviewing candidates for jobs, employers often ask about conflicts or problems a potential employee has had to overcome. They are asking for a compelling personal narrative. To prepare for this question in a job interview, write out a scenario using the narrative mode. This will allow you to troubleshoot rough spots as well as better understand your own personal history. It will make both your story your presentation of it better.

    Writing a Narrative Essay

    When writing a narrative essay, start by asking yourself if you want to write a factual or fictional story. Then freewrite about topics that are of general interest to you. You will learn more about freewriting in Chapter 5.

    Once you have a general idea of what you will be writing about, sketch out the major events of the story that will compose your plot. Typically, these events will be revealed chronologically and climax at a central conflict that must be resolved by the end of the story. The use of strong details is crucial as you describe the events and characters in your narrative. You want the reader to emotionally engage with the world that you create in writing.

    Tip

    To create strong details, keep the human senses in mind. You want your reader to be immersed in the world that you create, so focus on details related to sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch as you describe people, places, and events in your narrative.

    As always, it is important to start with a strong introduction to hook your reader into wanting to read more. Try opening the essay with an interesting event that helps to get the story going. Finally, your conclusion should help resolve the central conflict of the story and impress upon your reader the ultimate theme of the piece. See Appendix: Readings: Examples of Essays to read a sample narrative essay.

    key takeaways

    • Narration is the art of storytelling.
    • Narratives can be either factual or fictional. In either case, narratives should emotionally engage the reader.
    • Most narratives are composed of major events sequenced in chronological order.
    • Time transitional words and phrases are used to orient the reader in the sequence of a narrative.
    • The four basic components to all narratives are plot, character, conflict, and theme.
    • The use of sensory details is crucial to emotionally engaging the reader.
    • A strong introduction is important to hook the reader. A strong conclusion should add resolution to the conflict and evoke the narrative’s theme.
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