Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

5.5: Verbos pronominales

  • Page ID
    105832
  • Los verbos pronominales en español emplean pronombres reflexivos (me, te, se, nos, os, se) para comunicar los siguientes sentidos:
    a. acciones que el sujeto realiza sobre sí mismo o sobre su cuerpo:
    No me conozco (a mí mismo).
    Los gatos no se bañan (a sí mismos) con agua.
    b. acciones recíprocas:
    Nos queremos.
    La gente se entiende cuando se comunica.
    c. acciones no deliberadas:
    ¿Te caíste?
    Me rompí el brazo.

    d. para indicar un cambio de estado mental o físico, general o específico, súbito o gradual:
    Me sorprendí con tu visita.
    La ropa se seca al sol.

    e. para poner énfasis en la totalidad de ciertas acciones:
    Nos comimos el arroz.
    Me aprendí las palabras.

    f. para indicar el uso intransitivo (sin objeto directo) de muchos verbos:
    Es bueno comunicarse. (vs. Es bueno comunicar las noticias).
    Me siento feliz. (vs. Siento felicidad).
    Para explicaciones más detalladas sobre estos usos, ver:
    - construcciones reflexivas
    - verbos pronominales
    Spanish uses many verbs with a reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nos, os, se) in order to convey the following meanings:
    a. actions that the subject performs on itself or on its own body:
    I don't know myself.
    Cats don't bathe (themselves) with water.
    b. a reciprocal action:
    We love each other.
    People understand each other when they communicate.
    c. a non-deliberate action:
    Did you fall down?
    I broke my arm.
    d. to convey a change of state, often expressed in English with to get + adjective (get dirty, get well, get dark):
    I got surprised with your visit.
    Clothes get dry in the sun.
    e. to stress the totality of certain actions, generally related to consumption:
    We ate up the rice.
    I learned all the words (by heart).
    f. to signal the intransitive use (without a direct object) of many verbs:
    It is good to communicate (vs. It's good to communicate the news).
    I feel happy (vs. I feel happiness).
    For more detailed explanations on these uses, see:
    - reflexive constructions
    - verbos pronominales
    Las siguientes listas incluyen una muestra de verbos pronominales comunes, algunos de los cuales comunican sentidos diferentes cuando no son pronominales. Las preposiciones entre paréntesis sirven para unir a estos verbos con un infinitivo o una oración subordinada (con otro verbo conjugado):
    Aseguraron la puerta. (no pronominal)
    Se aseguraron de cerrar la puerta.
    Se aseguraron de que la puerta estuviera cerrada.
    Al final hay observaciones sobre los verbos marcados con *, §, ∞, ¥.
    The following lists include a sample of common verbs of this kind, some of which have different meanings with or without the reflexive pronoun. The prepositions shown in parenthesis are usually attached to these verbs when followed by the infinitive or a subordinate clause:
    They locked the door (not pronominal)
    They made sure to close the door.
    They made sure (that) the door was closed.
    See some observations below the list for verbs marked *, §, ∞, ¥.
    Verbos que son (casi) siempre pronominales:
    abalanzarse
    abstenerse (de) (como "tener")
    arrepentirse (de) (-ie-)
    atreverse (a)
    bifurcarse (en)
    desquitarse (de)
    enterarse (de)
    esforzarse (en/por) (-ue-)
    extralimitarse (en)
    jactarse (de)
    obstinarse (en)
    quejarse (de/por)
    rebelarse (contra)
    suicidarse
    Verbs that are (almost) always pronominal:
    to pounce, leap on, hurtle
    to abstain (from)
    to repent, to regret, to change one's mind
    to dare (to)
    to fork, branch off
    to get even
    to find out (about)
    to make and effort (to), to apply oneself (to)
    to cross the line, to overextend, exceed one's limits
    to brag, to boast
    to insist on, to be obstinate
    to complain
    to rebel (against)
    to commit suicide

    Verbos que no siempre son pronominales (muestra representativa parcial):

    acabarse (de) §
    acercarse (a)
    acordarse (de)
    acostarse
    acostumbrarse (a)
    alegrarse (de)
    alejarse
    apropiarse (de)
    asegurarse (de)
    asustarse (con/de)
    atrasarse
    averiarse §
    bajarse (de)
    beberse
    caerse §
    calentarse
    callarse
    cansarse (de)
    casarse (con)
    comerse
    comportarse
    comunicarse (con)
    conformarse (con)
    confundirse (por) §
    convertirse (en)
    dañarse §
    darse cuenta de
    decidirse (a)
    deprimirse (por)
    desesperarse (por)
    despedirse (de)
    despertarse (de)
    detenerse (a)
    deteriorarse
    disgustarse (por)
    divertirse
    dormirse
    emocionarse (por)
    empeñarse (en)
    enamorarse de
    enfermarse
    enfriarse
    enojarse (por)
    entristecerse
    entusiasmarse
    equivocarse
    extrañarse
    graduarse (de/en)
    hacerse
    imaginarse
    independizarse
    interesarse (en,por)
    irse (de un lugar)
    lamentarse (de)
    lanzarse
    levantarse
    llamarse
    llevarse
    marcharse (de)
    mejorarse
    molestarse (por)
    molestarse en ¥
    moverse
    morirse (de)
    negarse (a)
    nublarse §
    ocurrírsele a uno §
    ofenderse (por)
    olvidarse (de)
    parecerse (a alguien)
    perderse §
    ponerse
    ponerse a (hacer...)
    prepararse (para)
    preocuparse (por)
    quedarse (a) §
    quedarse ciego...
    referirse (a)
    resistirse (a)
    reunirse
    romperse §
    sentarse (a)
    sentirse (de)
    sorprenderse (de)
    subirse (a)
    tenerse (de algo)
    transformarse
    unirse
    unirse a
    vestirse
    volverse
    to come to an end
    to get close(r)
    to remember
    to go to bed
    to get used
    to be glad, happy that...
    to get away or far(ther)
    to take possession of
    to make sure of
    to get frightened
    to fall behind
    to break down
    to get off (a vehicle)
    to drink (something) up
    to fall down or off
    to get hot
    to stop speaking
    to get tired
    to get married
    to eat (something) up
    to behave
    to communicate (with)
    to settle for, be content with
    to get confused or lost
    to become (see §40C)
    to get damaged; break down
    to realize
    to make up one's mind
    to get depressed
    to get desperate
    to say good bye or farewell
    to wake up
    to stop
    to get deteriorated
    to get upset
    to have fun, enjoy oneself
    to go to sleep, fall asleep
    to get excited or moved
    to insist on; persist in
    to fall in love with
    to get sick
    to get cold; cool down
    to get angry
    to grow sad
    to get enthused
    to make a mistake
    to be puzzled
    to graduate (from school)
    to become (see §40C)
    to imagine (to suppose)
    to become independent
    to be(come) interested
    to go away, leave
    to express regret, whine
    to pounce on, leap on
    to get up
    to be called...(name)
    to take away (with), carry off
    to go away
    to get better from an illness
    to become annoyed
    to bother do something
    to move (one's body)
    to die (naturally; used inf.)
    to refuse
    to get cloud
    to occur to one (an idea)
    to get offended
    to forget accidentally
    to look (a)like (similar to)
    to get lost; to miss an event
    to get, become, turn (+ adj.)
    to set out to
    to get prepared (for)
    to be worried (about)
    to stay (somewhere)
    to become (blind, mute, deaf)
    to refer to
    to resist (against)
    to get together, have a meeting
    to get broken
    to sit down
    to feel (with adjectives, adverbs)
    to be surprised
    to get on (a vehicle)
    to hold on (to avoid falling)
    to get transformed, become
    to unite, get together
    to join (someone, a group)
    to get dressed
    to turn round or into
    acabar
    acercar
    acordar
    acostar
    acostumbrar
    alegrar*
    alejar
    apropiar
    asegurar
    asustar*
    atrasar
    averiar
    bajar
    beber
    caer
    calentar
    callar
    cansar*
    casar
    comer
    comportar
    comunicar
    conformar
    confundir*
    convertir
    dañar
    dar cuenta (de)
    decidir
    deprimir*
    desesperar*
    despedir
    despertar
    detener
    deteriorar
    disgustar
    divertir*
    dormir
    emocionar*
    empeñar
    enamorar
    enfermar
    enfriar
    enojar*
    entristecer*
    entusiasmar*
    equivocar
    extrañar*
    graduar
    hacer
    imaginar
    independizar
    interesar*
    ir
    lamentar
    lanzar
    levantar
    llamar
    llevar
    marchar
    mejorar
    molestar*

    mover
    morir
    negar
    nublar
    ocurrir
    ofender*
    olvidar
    parecer
    perder
    poner

    preparar
    preocupar*
    quedar

    referir
    resistir
    reunir
    romper
    sentar
    sentir
    sorprender*
    subir
    tener
    transformar
    unir
    unir
    vestir
    volver (de)
    to end, to finish
    to move something close
    to agree to
    to put to bed or in horizontal position
    to be in the habit of
    to cheer someone
    to move something away; to put off
    to apply properly
    to lock, to insure
    to frighten
    to delay, to hold up.
    to damage; to cause to malfunction
    to go down; to descend
    to drink
    to fall, collapse
    to heat
    to silence someone
    to tire someone
    to marry someone else
    to eat
    to entail or bring about
    to communicate something
    to form, knock into shape
    to confuse
    to change into.
    to harm; to damage
    to inform, to account for
    to decide
    to cause depression
    to cause desperation, give up
    to emit; to dismiss
    to wake someone up
    to stop someone, detain
    to deteriorate
    to upset or annoy
    to amuse someone
    to sleep
    to excite or move (emotionally)
    to pawn; to pledge
    to make someone fall in love; seduce
    to cause illness; to make sick
    to cool or chill somehting
    to anger
    to sadden
    to enthuse
    to mistake, mix up, confuse
    to miss someone
    to graduate something
    to do, to make
    to conceive of, invent ideas
    to make independent
    to interest someone
    to go somewhere
    to lament, regret
    to throw; to launch
    to lift
    to call
    to carry somewhere; to wear
    to march
    to improve
    to annoy, to bother

    to move something
    to die
    to deny
    to cloud
    to happen
    to offend
    to forget
    to seem (to look)
    to lose
    to put

    to prepare something
    to worry someone
    to remain, to be left

    to tell off, recount
    to bear, to stand something
    to gather, muster up
    to break; to tear
    to sit someone; to settle
    to feel (with nouns and clauses)
    to surprise someone
    to go up; to climb
    to have, to hold
    to transform (something) into
    to put together
    to join two things
    to dress someone
    to return (from)

    Notas:

    * Los verbos que expresan reacciones emocionales a menudo pueden ser pronominales o emplearse con el pronombre de objeto indirecto (en construcciones valorativas). Aunque la forma pronominal hace más énfasis en el cambio emocional de la persona, el significado de ambas construcciones es casi igual. Por ejemplo:
    Les alegró la noticia. (construcción valorativa, como gustar)
    Se alegraron con la noticia. (con el pronominal alegrarse)
    A él le preocupan sus hijos. (construcción valorativa)
    Él se preocupa por sus hijos. (pronominal)
    * Verbs that express emotional reaction are often either pronominal or used with an indirect object pronoun (in constructions like the one used with gustar). Although the pronominal form tends to emphasize the change experienced by the person who reacts, both constructions have pretty much the same meaning. For example:
    The news cheered them up.
    They got/were glad with the news.
    His children worry him.
    He worries about his children.
    § Estos verbos pueden emplearse en un tipo especial de construcción pasiva que combina se con el pronombre de objeto indirecto para indicar acciones no deliberadas:
    Se les olvidó la cita.
    Se me confunden los datos.
    ¿Se te perdieron las llaves?
    Se nos acabó la gasolina.
    Al carro se le dañaron los frenos.
    No tengo el libro: se me quedó en casa.
    Mira, se te cayeron las llaves.

    Se le rompió el pantalón al sentarse.
    Para expresar que una idea viene a la mente de forma repentina o inesperada, se emplea esta misma construcción con el verbo ocurrir:
    Se nos ocurrió una idea brillante.
    No se me ocurre nada para resolver ese problema.
    § These verbs can be used in a particular passive construction combining se and the indirect object pronouns to stress that certain actions are nondeliberate or accidental:
    They forgot (about) the appointment.
    The data are confused in my mind.
    Did the keys got lost (on you)?
    We ran out of gas.
    The car's brakes got damaged.
    I don't have the book. I left it home (accidentally).
    Look, you dropped the keys (involuntarily).
    His pants tore when he sat down.
    "To occur to someone" in the sense of getting a sudden idea or impression is expressed by
    ocurrir in this kind of construction:
    We just got a brilliant idea.
    Nothing occurs to me (I can't think of anything).
    ¥ Molestarse en hacer algo indica que el sujeto realiza la acción con un esfuerzo de cortesía o sin la inclinación a hacerla. ¥ Molestarse en hacer algo means "to bother do something" in the sense of not being inclined to do it or do it out of courtesy.
    Entre otros sentidos, quedar indica lo que hay de un conjunto total después de haber sido modificado (Nos queda algo de dinero - después de gastar una parte). En ese caso, se usa como el verbo gustar (construcción valorativa).
    Quedarse ciego/sordo/mudo son expresiones comunes para indicar estos cambios de estado físicos y permanentes.
    Quedarse también significa permanecer en un lugar o en un estado (después de un cambio):
    Me quedé tranquilo después de que me llamaste.
    Among several other meanings, quedar is used in the sense of "having something left" from a set, as in "We have some money left" (after having spent part of it). In this case, it is used like gustar: (construcción valorativa).
    Quedarse ciego/sordo/mudo means "to become", particularly for a long-lasting change in physical abilities.
    Quedarse also means to stay (in a place) and remain in a state after some change has occurred:
    I got (was left) relaxed after you called me.
    • Was this article helpful?