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2.7: Book VII

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    • Homer (translated by Samuel Butler)
    • Ancient Greece
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    Thus, then, did Odysseus wait and pray; but the girl drove on to the town. When she reached her father’s house she drew up at the gateway, and her brothers—comely as the gods—gathered round her, took the mules out of the wagon, and carried the clothes into the house, while she went to her own room, where an old slave, Eurymedusa of Apeira, [1] lit the fire for her. This old woman had been brought by sea from Apeira, and had been chosen as a prize for Alcinous because he was king over the Phaeacians, and the people obeyed him as though he were a god. She had been nurse to Nausicaa, and had now lit the fire for her, and brought her supper for her into her own room.

    Presently Odysseus got up to go towards the town; and Athena shed a thick mist all round him to hide him in case any of the proud Phaeacians who met him should be rude to him, or ask him who he was. Then, as he was just entering the town, she came towards him in the likeness of a little girl carrying a pitcher. She stood right in front of him, and Odysseus said:

    “My dear, will you be so kind as to show me the house of king Alcinous? I am an unfortunate foreigner in distress, and do not know one in your town and country.” 

    Then Athena said, “Yes, father stranger, I will show you the house you want, for Alcinous lives quite close to my own father. I will go before you and show the way, but say not a word as you go, and do not look at any man, nor ask him questions; for the people here cannot abide strangers, and do not like men who come from some other place. They are a sea-faring folk, and sail the seas by the grace of Poseidon in ships that glide along like thought, or as a bird in the air.” [2]

    On this she led the way, and Odysseus followed in her steps; but not one of the Phaeacians could see him as he passed through the city in the midst of them; for the great goddess Athena in her good will towards him had hidden him in a thick cloud of darkness. He admired their harbors, ships, places of assembly, and the lofty walls of the city, which, with the palisade [3] on top of them, were very striking, and when they reached the king’s house Athena said:

    “This is the house, father stranger, which you would have me show you. You will find a number of great people sitting at table, but do not be afraid; go straight in, for the bolder a man is the more likely he is to make his point, even though he is a stranger. First find the queen. Her name is Arete, [4] and she comes of the same family as her husband Alcinous. They both descend originally from Poseidon, who was father to Nausithous by Periboea, a woman of great beauty. Periboea was the youngest daughter of Eurymedon, who at one time reigned over the giants, but he ruined his ill-fated people and lost his own life to boot.

    “Poseidon, however, lay with his daughter, and she had a son by him, the great Nausithous, who reigned over the Phaeacians. Nausithous had two sons Rhexenor and Alcinous; Apollo killed the first of them while he was still a bridegroom and without male issue; but he left a daughter Arete, whom Alcinous married, [5] and honors as no other woman is honored of all those that keep house along with their husbands.

    “Thus she both was, and still is, respected beyond measure by her children, by Alcinous himself, and by the whole people, who look upon her as a goddess, and greet her whenever she goes about the city, for she is a thoroughly good woman both in head and heart, and when any women are friends of hers, she will help their husbands also to settle their disputes. If you can gain her good will, you may have every hope of seeing your friends again, and getting safely back to your home and country.”

    Then Athena left Scheria and went away over the sea. She went to Marathon [6] and to the spacious streets of Athens, [7] where she entered the abode of Erechtheus; [8] but Odysseus went on to the house of Alcinous, and he pondered much as he paused a while before reaching the threshold of bronze, for the splendor of the palace was like that of the sun or moon. The walls on either side were of bronze from end to end, and the cornice [9] was of blue enamel. The doors were gold, and hung on pillars of silver that rose from a floor of bronze, while the lintel [10] was silver and the hook of the door was of gold.

    On either side there stood gold and silver mastiff hounds which Hephaestus, [11] with his consummate skill, had fashioned expressly to keep watch over the palace of king Alcinous; so they were immortal and could never grow old. Seats were ranged all along the wall, here and there from one end to the other, with coverings of fine woven work which the women of the house had made. Here the chief persons of the Phaeacians used to sit and eat and drink, for there was abundance at all seasons; and there were golden figures of young men with lighted torches in their hands, raised on pedestals, to give light by night to those who were at table. There are fifty female slaves in the house, some of whom are always grinding rich yellow grain at the mill, while others work at the loom, or sit and spin, and their shuttles go backwards and forwards like the fluttering of aspen leaves, while the linen is so closely woven that it will turn oil. [12] As the Phaeacians are the best sailors in the world, so their women excel all others in weaving, for Athena [13] has taught them all manner of useful arts, and they are very intelligent.

    Outside the gate of the outer court there is a large garden of about four acres with a wall all round it. It is full of beautiful trees—pears, pomegranates, and the most delicious apples. There are luscious figs also, and olives in full growth. The fruits never rot nor fail all the year round, neither winter nor summer, for the air is so soft that a new crop ripens before the old has dropped. Pear grows on pear, apple on apple, and fig on fig, and so also with the grapes, for there is an excellent vineyard: on the level ground of a part of this, the grapes are being made into raisins; in another part they are being gathered; some are being trodden in the wine tubs, others further on have shed their blossom and are beginning to show fruit, others again are just changing color. In the furthest part of the ground there are beautifully arranged beds of flowers that are in bloom all the year round. Two streams go through it, the one turned in ducts throughout the whole garden, while the other is carried under the ground of the outer court to the house itself, and the town’s people draw water from it. Such, then, were the splendors with which the gods had endowed the house of king Alcinous.

    So here Odysseus stood for a while and looked about him, but when he had looked long enough he crossed the threshold and went within the precincts of the house. There he found all the chief people among the Phaeacians making their drink offerings to Hermes, [14] which they always did the last thing before going away for the night. He went straight through the court, still hidden by the cloak of darkness in which Athena had enveloped him, till he reached Arete and King Alcinous; then he laid his hands upon the knees of the queen, and at that moment the miraculous darkness fell away from him and he became visible. Every one was speechless with surprise at seeing a man there, but Odysseus began at once with his petition.

    “Queen Arete,” he exclaimed, “daughter of great Rhexenor, in my distress I humbly pray you, as also your husband and these your guests (whom may heaven prosper with long life and happiness, and may they leave their possessions to their children, and all the honors conferred upon them by the state) to help me home to my own country as soon as possible; for I have been long in trouble and away from my friends.”

    Then he sat down on the hearth among the ashes [15] and they all held their peace, till presently the old hero Echeneus, who was an excellent speaker and an elder among the Phaeacians, plainly and in all honesty addressed them thus:

    “Alcinous,” said he, “it is not creditable to you that a stranger should be seen sitting among the ashes of your hearth; every one is waiting to hear what you are about to say; tell him, then, to rise and take a seat on a stool inlaid with silver, and bid your servants mix some wine and water that we may make a drink offering to Zeus the lord of thunder, who takes all well disposed suppliants under his protection; [16] and let the housekeeper give him some supper, of whatever there may be in the house.”

    When Alcinous heard this he took Odysseus by the hand, raised him from the hearth, and bade him take the seat of Laodamas, who had been sitting beside him, and was his favorite son. A female slave then brought him water in a beautiful golden pitcher and poured it into a silver basin for him to wash his hands, and she drew a clean table beside him; an upper servant brought him bread and offered him many good things of what there was in the house, and Odysseus ate and drank. Then Alcinous said to one of the servants, “Pontonous, mix a cup of wine and hand it round that we may make drink-offerings to Zeus the lord of thunder, who is the protector of all well-disposed suppliants.”

    Pontonous then mixed wine and water, and handed it round after giving every man his drink-offering. [17] When they had made their offerings, and had drunk each as much as he was minded, Alcinous said:

    “Aldermen and town councilors of the Phaeacians, hear my words. You have had your supper, so now go home to bed. Tomorrow morning I shall invite a still larger number of aldermen, and will give a sacrificial banquet in honor of our guest; we can then discuss the question of his escort, and consider how we may at once send him back rejoicing to his own country without trouble or inconvenience to himself, no matter how distant it may be. We must see that he comes to no harm while on his homeward journey, but when he is once at home he will have to take the luck he was born with for better or worse like other people. It is possible, however, that the stranger is one of the immortals who has come down from heaven to visit us; [18] but in this case the gods are departing from their usual practice, for hitherto they have made themselves perfectly clear to us when we have been offering them hecatombs. [19] They come and sit at our feasts just like one of our selves, and if any solitary wayfarer happens to stumble upon some one or other of them, they affect no concealment, for we are as near of kin to the gods as the Cyclopes and the savage giants are [20].”

    Then Odysseus said: “Pray, Alcinous, do not take any such notion into your head. I have nothing of the immortal about me, neither in body nor mind, and most resemble those among you who are the most afflicted. Indeed, were I to tell you all that heaven has seen fit to lay upon me, you would say that I was still worse off than they are. Nevertheless, let me dine in spite of sorrow, for an empty stomach is a very importunate thing, and thrusts itself on a man’s notice no matter how dire is his distress. I am in great trouble, yet it insists that I shall eat and drink, bids me lay aside all memory of my sorrows and dwell only on the due replenishing of itself. As for yourselves, do as you propose, and at break of day set about helping me to get home. I shall be content to die if I may first once more behold my property, my slaves, and all the greatness of my house.”

    Thus did he speak. Every one approved his saying, and agreed that he should have his escort inasmuch as he had spoken reasonably. Then when they had made their drink offerings, and had drunk each as much as he was minded they went home to bed every man in his own abode, leaving Odysseus in the cloister with Arete and Alcinous while the servants were taking the things away after supper. Arete was the first to speak, for she recognized the shirt, cloak, and good clothes that Odysseus was wearing, as the work of herself and of her maids; so she said, “Stranger, before we go any further, there is a question I should like to ask you. Who, and whence are you, and who gave you those clothes? Did you not say you had come here from beyond the sea?”

    Fracesco Hayez, Odysseus at the court of Alcinous, oil on canvas, c. 1815; Galleria Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons. 

    And Odysseus answered, “It would be a long story Madam, were I to relate in full the tale of my misfortunes, for the hand of heaven has been laid heavy upon me; but as regards your question, there is an island far away in the sea which is called ‘the Ogygian.’ Here dwells the cunning and powerful goddess Calypso, daughter of Atlas. [21]  She lives by herself far from all neighbors human or divine. Fortune, [22] however, brought me to her hearth all desolate and alone, for Zeus struck my ship with his thunderbolts, [23] and broke it up in mid-ocean. My brave comrades were drowned every man of them, but I stuck to the keel and was carried hither and thither for the space of nine days, till at last during the darkness of the tenth night the gods brought me to the Ogygian island where the great goddess Calypso lives. She took me in and treated me with the utmost kindness; indeed she wanted to make me immortal [24] that I might never grow old, but she could not persuade me to let her do so.

    “I stayed with Calypso seven years straight on end, and watered the good clothes she gave me with my tears during the whole time; but at last when the eighth year came round she bade me depart of her own free will, either because Zeus had told her she must, or because she had changed her mind. She sent me from her island on a raft, which she provisioned with abundance of bread and wine. Moreover she gave me good stout clothing, and sent me a wind that blew both warm and fair. For seventeen days did I sail over the sea, and on the eighteenth I caught sight of the first outlines of the mountains upon your coast—and glad indeed was I to set eyes upon them. Nevertheless there was still much trouble in store for me, for at this point Poseidon [25] would let me go no further, and raised a great storm against me; the sea was so terribly high that I could no longer keep to my raft, which went to pieces under the fury of the gale, and I had to swim for it, till wind and current brought me to your shores.

    “There I tried to land, but could not, for it was a bad place and the waves dashed me against the rocks, so I again took to the sea and swam on till I came to a river that seemed the most likely landing place, for there were no rocks and it was sheltered from the wind. Here, then, I got out of the water and gathered my senses together again. Night was coming on, so I left the river, and went into a thicket, where I covered myself all over with leaves, and presently heaven sent me off into a very deep sleep. Sick and sorry as I was I slept among the leaves all night, and through the next day until afternoon, when I woke as the sun was setting, and saw your daughter’s maid servants playing upon the beach, and your daughter among them looking like a goddess. I besought her aid, and she proved to be of an excellent disposition, much more so than could be expected from so young a person—for young people are apt to be thoughtless. She gave me plenty of bread and wine, and when she had had me washed in the river she also gave me the clothes in which you see me. Now, therefore, though it has pained me to do so, I have told you the whole truth.”

    Then Alcinous said, “Stranger, it was very wrong of my daughter not to bring you on at once to my house along with the maids, seeing that she was the first person whose aid you asked.”

    “Please do not scold her,” replied Odysseus; “she is not to blame. She did tell me to follow along with the maids, but I was ashamed and afraid, for I thought you might perhaps be displeased if you saw me. Every human being is sometimes a little suspicious and irritable.”

    “Stranger,” replied Alcinous, “I am not the kind of man to get angry about nothing; it is always better to be reasonable; but by Father Zeus, Athena, and Apollo, [26] now that I see what kind of person you are, and how much you think as I do, I wish you would stay here, marry my daughter, and become my son-in-law. If you will stay I will give you a house and an estate, but no one (heaven forbid) shall keep you here against your own wish, and that you may be sure of this I will attend tomorrow to the matter of your escort. You can sleep during the whole voyage if you like, and the men shall sail you over smooth waters either to your own home, or wherever you please, even though it be a long way further off than Euboea, [27] which those of my people who saw it when they took yellow-haired [28] Rhadamanthus [29] to see Tityus [30] the son of Gaia, [31] tell me is the furthest of any place—and yet they did the whole voyage in a single day without distressing themselves, and came back again afterwards. You will thus see how much my ships excel all others, and what magnificent oarsmen my sailors are.”

    Then was Odysseus glad and prayed aloud saying, “Father Zeus, grant that Alcinous may do all as he has said, for so he will win an imperishable name among mankind, and at the same time I shall return to my country.”

    Thus did they converse. Then Arete told her female slaves to set a bed in the room that was in the gatehouse, and make it with good red [32] rugs, and to spread coverlets on the top of them with woolen cloaks for Odysseus to wear. The maids therefore went out with torches in their hands, and when they had made the bed they came up to Odysseus and said, “Rise, sir stranger, and come with us for your bed is ready,” and glad indeed was he to go to his rest.

    So Odysseus slept in a bed placed in a room over the echoing gateway; but Alcinous lay in the inner part of the house, with the queen his wife by his side.


    [1] Apeira is the plural form of the Greek Word Aperion, meaning 'that which is unlimited' or 'boundless.' There's not an actual place called Apeira, so this seems more to signify the servant is a foreigner than anything else.

    [2] Unfortunate foreigners were also potential trading partners, raiders, or perhaps gods in disguise.

    [3] A palisade is a wall or fence meant for defensive purposes.

    [4] As we will see, Arete is a formidable woman, and deserves to be compared with Penelope, Helen, and Clytemnestra.

    [5] Marrying one's brother was considered incest by the Greeks (unless you were a god/goddess), but was common among rulers in Egypt.

    [6] A town in Greece, famous for the Battle of Marathon, where outnumbered Athenians defeated the Persians. The aftermath of the battle itself gained some fame, as it is from there that the soldier Pheidippides ran 25 miles to Athens to deliver the news they had won and then promptly died. From then on he was honored as the first marathon runner.

    [7] Athena was the patron of the city-state Athens.

    [8] One of the first kings of Athens.

    [9] Ornamental molding around the walls of a room, just under the ceiling.

    [10] A horizontal support bar across the top of a door or window.

    [11] Hephaestus was god of blacksmiths and craftspeople.

    [12] Female slaves were often employed not only as domestic help, but in the laborious process of hand-grinding grain for bread and cloth production. Athena was patron goddess of weaving and artisans.


    [14] Hermes was patron of travelers and merchants (and thieves) and was Odysseus's great-grandfather. Drink offerings or libations were a common way of honoring the gods (normally consisting of a dedicatory prayer and a token portion of the drink being poured out as a gesture of respect). In ancient Greece it was customary to offer a part of any meal or drink to the gods.

    [15] Odysseus is a supplicant, not a guest in the house of Alcinous. He has not been invited in, so he must take a lower position until welcomed into the house.

    [16] Zeus was patron of all foreigners and guests. For the rules of hospitality, see the article in 1.2.

    [17] For drink offerings, see note 13 above. Greek wine was extremely potent and had to be watered down in order to make it drinkable.

    [18] Zeus and other gods and goddesses often appeared in disguise to test if mortals adhered to the rules of hospitality (see 1.2)

    [19] A hecatomb was great public sacrifice to the gods of oxen or cattle. In theory it was supposed to be 100 animals, but in practice the number was usually much smaller. Most of the meat of sacrificed animals was consumed by humans feasting in honor of the gods.

    [20]  The Cyclopes and giants were part-god, so too were the Phaeacians.

    [21] Calypso is also referred to as a 'nymph' which were more minor female immortals. Here the term goddess denotes her as a more powerful being, however part of that may be Odysseus adding his own flourishes within the narrative. Atlas was a Titan who fought against the gods. When the Titans lost Zeus forced him to hold up the sky on his shoulders.

    [22] The use of Fortune here may be a direct reference to the Greek goddess Tyche (Fortuna in the Roman form), goddess of luck and fortune.

    [23] Zeus was god of the sky and his weapon of choice was the thunderbolt.

    [24] It was a common reward for great heroes to be made immortal as a reward or as a partner to a god or goddess. Hercules (Heracles) is an example of the former while Ariadne represents the latter.

    [25] Poseidon was god of the sea, from which the Scherians made their living. He was also angry at Odysseus for blinding his son Polyphemus (see book 9). 

    [26] Zeus was king of the gods; Athena, his daughter was patroness of wisdom, artisans, and Athens; Apollo was god of the sun, medicine, and archery. 

    [27] A large Greek island off the southeastern part of the mainland.

    [28] Yellow hair was fairly uncommon in the Mediterranean world. It was sometimes seen as a mark of "barbarians."

    [29] One of the wise kings of Crete and eventual judge of the dead.

    [30] Tityus was a giant in Greek mythology. His main story involves a time he attacked Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo) when she was on her way to a shrine. Apollo stepped in to protect his mother and killed the giant.

    [31] In Greek mythology Gaia was a primordial deity representing the earth. She was also mother of the Titans.

    [32] Though not as rare as purple, red was still an expensive dye color and a mark of high social standing in the ancient Mediterranean world.


    This page titled 2.7: Book VII is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Homer (translated by Samuel Butler).