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Which of the following is part of the axial skeleton?
- shoulder bones
- thigh bone
- foot bones
- vertebral column
Which of the following is a function of the axial skeleton?
- allows for movement of the wrist and hand
- protects nerves and blood vessels at the elbow
- supports trunk of body
- allows for movements of the ankle and foot
The axial skeleton ________.
- consists of 126 bones
- forms the vertical axis of the body
- includes all bones of the body trunk and limbs
- includes only the bones of the lower limbs
Which of the following is a bone of the brain case?
- parietal bone
- zygomatic bone
- maxillary bone
- lacrimal bone
The lambdoid suture joins the parietal bone to the ________.
- frontal bone
- occipital bone
- other parietal bone
- temporal bone
The middle cranial fossa ________.
- is bounded anteriorly by the petrous ridge
- is bounded posteriorly by the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
- is divided at the midline by a small area of the ethmoid bone
- has the foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, and foramen spinosum
The paranasal sinuses are ________.
- air-filled spaces found within the frontal, maxilla, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones only
- air-filled spaces found within all bones of the skull
- not connected to the nasal cavity
- divided at the midline by the nasal septum
Parts of the sphenoid bone include the ________.
- sella turcica
- squamous portion
- zygomatic process
The bony openings of the skull include the ________.
- carotid canal, which is located in the anterior cranial fossa
- superior orbital fissure, which is located at the superior margin of the anterior orbit
- mental foramen, which is located just below the orbit
- hypoglossal canal, which is located in the posterior cranial fossa
The cervical region of the vertebral column consists of ________.
- seven vertebrae
- 12 vertebrae
- five vertebrae
- a single bone derived from the fusion of five vertebrae
The primary curvatures of the vertebral column ________.
- include the lumbar curve
- are remnants of the original fetal curvature
- include the cervical curve
- develop after the time of birth
A typical vertebra has ________.
- a vertebral foramen that passes through the body
- a superior articular process that projects downward to articulate with the superior portion of the next lower vertebra
- lamina that spans between the transverse process and spinous process
- a pair of laterally projecting spinous processes
A typical lumbar vertebra has ________.
- a short, rounded spinous process
- a bifid spinous process
- articulation sites for ribs
- a transverse foramen
Which is found only in the cervical region of the vertebral column?
- nuchal ligament
- ligamentum flavum
- supraspinous ligament
- anterior longitudinal ligament
The sternum ________.
- consists of only two parts, the manubrium and xiphoid process
- has the sternal angle located between the manubrium and body
- receives direct attachments from the costal cartilages of all 12 pairs of ribs
- articulates directly with the thoracic vertebrae
The sternal angle is the ________.
- junction between the body and xiphoid process
- site for attachment of the clavicle
- site for attachment of the floating ribs
- junction between the manubrium and body
The tubercle of a rib ________.
- is for articulation with the transverse process of a thoracic vertebra
- is for articulation with the body of a thoracic vertebra
- provides for passage of blood vessels and a nerve
- is the area of greatest rib curvature
True ribs are ________.
- ribs 8–12
- attached via their costal cartilage to the next higher rib
- made entirely of bone, and thus do not have a costal cartilage
- attached via their costal cartilage directly to the sternum
Embryonic development of the axial skeleton involves ________.
- intramembranous ossification, which forms the facial bones.
- endochondral ossification, which forms the ribs and sternum
- the notochord, which produces the cartilage models for the vertebrae
- the formation of hyaline cartilage models, which give rise to the flat bones of the skull
A fontanelle ________.
- is the cartilage model for a vertebra that later is converted into bone
- gives rise to the facial bones and vertebrae
- is the rod-like structure that runs the length of the early embryo
- is the area of fibrous connective tissue found at birth between the brain case bones