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Review Questions

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    1. The papillary layer of the dermis is most closely associated with which layer of the epidermis?
      1. stratum spinosum
      2. stratum corneum
      3. stratum granulosum
      4. stratum basale
    2. Langerhans cells are commonly found in the ________.

      1. stratum spinosum
      2. stratum corneum
      3. stratum granulosum
      4. stratum basale
    3. The papillary and reticular layers of the dermis are composed mainly of ________.

      1. melanocytes
      2. keratinocytes
      3. connective tissue
      4. adipose tissue
    4. Collagen lends ________ to the skin.

      1. elasticity
      2. structure
      3. color
      4. UV protection
    5. Which of the following is not a function of the hypodermis?

      1. protects underlying organs
      2. helps maintain body temperature
      3. source of blood vessels in the epidermis
      4. a site to long-term energy storage
    6.  In response to stimuli from the sympathetic nervous system, the arrector pili ________.
      1. are glands on the skin surface
      2. can lead to excessive sweating
      3. are responsible for goose bumps
      4. secrete sebum
    7. The hair matrix contains ________.
      1. the hair follicle
      2. the hair shaft
      3. the glassy membrane
      4. a layer of basal cells
    8. Eccrine sweat glands ________.

      1. are present on hair
      2. are present in the skin throughout the body and produce watery sweat
      3. produce sebum
      4. act as a moisturizer
    9. Sebaceous glands ________.

      1. are a type of sweat gland
      2. are associated with hair follicles
      3. may function in response to touch
      4. release a watery solution of salt and metabolic waste
    10. Similar to the hair, nails grow continuously throughout our lives. Which of the following is furthest from the nail growth center?

      1. nail bed
      2. hyponychium
      3. nail root
      4. eponychium
    11.  In humans, exposure of the skin to sunlight is required for ________.
      1. vitamin D synthesis
      2. arteriole constriction
      3. folate production
      4. thermoregulation
    12. One of the functions of the integumentary system is protection. Which of the following does not directly contribute to that function?

      1. stratum lucidum
      2. desmosomes
      3. folic acid synthesis
      4. Merkel cells
    13. An individual using a sharp knife notices a small amount of blood where he just cut himself. Which of the following layers of skin did he have to cut into in order to bleed?

      1. stratum corneum
      2. stratum basale
      3. papillary dermis
      4. stratum granulosum
    14. As you are walking down the beach, you see a dead, dry, shriveled-up fish. Which layer of your epidermis keeps you from drying out?

      1. stratum corneum
      2. stratum basale
      3. stratum spinosum
      4. stratum granulosum
    15. If you cut yourself and bacteria enter the wound, which of the following cells would help get rid of the bacteria?

      1. Merkel cells
      2. keratinocytes
      3. Langerhans cells
      4. melanocytes
    16. In general, skin cancers ________.

      1. are easily treatable and not a major health concern
      2. occur due to poor hygiene
      3. can be reduced by limiting exposure to the sun
      4. affect only the epidermis
    17.  Bedsores ________.
      1. can be treated with topical moisturizers
      2. can result from deep massages
      3. are preventable by eliminating pressure points
      4. are caused by dry skin
    18. An individual has spent too much time sun bathing. Not only is his skin painful to touch, but small blisters have appeared in the affected area. This indicates that he has damaged which layers of his skin?

      1. epidermis only
      2. hypodermis only
      3. epidermis and hypodermis
      4. epidermis and dermis
    19. After a skin injury, the body initiates a wound-healing response. The first step of this response is the formation of a blood clot to stop bleeding. Which of the following would be the next response?

      1. increased production of melanin by melanocytes
      2. increased production of connective tissue
      3. an increase in Pacinian corpuscles around the wound
      4. an increased activity in the stratum lucidum
    20. Squamous cell carcinomas are the second most common of the skin cancers and are capable of metastasizing if not treated. This cancer affects which cells?

      1. basal cells of the stratum basale
      2. melanocytes of the stratum basale
      3. keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum
      4. Langerhans cells of the stratum lucidum

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