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Critical Thinking Questions

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    1. What materials can easily diffuse through the lipid bilayer, and why?
    2. Why is receptor-mediated endocytosis said to be more selective than phagocytosis or pinocytosis?
    3. What do osmosis, diffusion, filtration, and the movement of ions away from like charge all have in common? In what way do they differ?
    4. Explain why the structure of the ER, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus assist their respective functions.
    5. Compare and contrast lysosomes with peroxisomes: name at least two similarities and one difference.
    6. Explain in your own words why DNA replication is said to be “semiconservative”?
    7. Why is it important that DNA replication take place before cell division? What would happen if cell division of a body cell took place without DNA replication, or when DNA replication was incomplete?
    8. Briefly explain the similarities between transcription and DNA replication.
    9. Contrast transcription and translation. Name at least three differences between the two processes.
    10. What would happen if anaphase proceeded even though the sister chromatids were not properly attached to their respective microtubules and lined up at the metaphase plate?
    11. What are cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, and how do they interact?
    12. Explain how a transcription factor ultimately determines whether or not a protein will be present in a given cell?
    13. Discuss two reasons why the therapeutic use of embryonic stem cells can present a problem.

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