# 3.3: Multi-Column Scripts

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$

$$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$

$$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}$$ $$\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}$$ $$\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}$$ $$\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}$$ $$\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}$$ $$\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}$$ $$\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}$$ $$\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}$$ $$\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}$$ $$\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}$$ $$\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}$$ $$\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}$$ $$\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}$$ $$\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}$$ $$\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}$$ $$\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}$$ $$\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}$$ $$\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}$$ $$\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}$$ $$\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}$$ $$\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}$$ $$\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}$$ $$\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}$$ $$\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}$$ $$\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}$$ $$\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}$$ $$\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}$$ $$\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}$$ $$\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}$$ $$\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}$$ $$\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}$$ $$\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}$$ $$\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}$$ $$\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}$$ $$\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}$$ $$\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}$$ $$\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lt}{<}$$ $$\newcommand{\gt}{>}$$ $$\newcommand{\amp}{&}$$ $$\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}$$

## Multi-Column Scripts (AV Scripts)

Content produced for live broadcast or livestream, such as local news, daytime talk shows, late-night talk shows, and awards shows use Two-Column Scripts or Three Column Scripts, with the dialogue and visual cues for each camera included.

Short-form content, such as commercials, public service announcements (PSA’s), and digital content (programming produced for the web), documentaries, and multi-camera productions such as news and talk shows, also often use Three-Column Scripts.

• Time Cues - Left Column, Back times the script elements
• Video Cues - Center Column, includes Camera framing/numbers, Graphics (full screens and lower thirds) and Roll In’s.
• Audio Cues - Dialogue for the Talent (USE ALL CAPS FOR TELEPROMPTER & VO SEGMENTS), Music cues, Sound Effects (stingers), etc.

Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Multi-column Talk Show Script with three columns. The first column shows the time of each segment. The second column shows the camera number, camera framing, and graphics. The third column includes dialogue for each character and sound cues.

(CC BY-NC 4.0; Image by Jen Vaughn via Los Angeles City College)

## Digital Content & News Story Formats

News broadcasts and digital content created for the web have many different types of stories included in each program to keep the audience engaged. Anchors read scripts live on the air, toss to reporters live in the field, and set up the context for pre-recorded video packages. Each of these elements of the program has terminology associated with how the story is produced. Here's a list of common story forms and the shorthand used in broadcast news scripting and rundowns:

• RDR = Reader (a.k.a. short story), 15 - 20 seconds maximum, often uses graphics or images to enhance the story.
• OTS = Over the Shoulder Graphics (box on the top right or left of the screen with graphics and a short title).
• VO = Voice-Over (we hear the anchor commentary over graphics or video)
• SOT = Sound on Tape (footage includes music, pre-recorded voice over, or snippets of pre-recorded interviews called “sound bites”).
• VO/SOT = Voice-Over and Sound on Tape combined into one video roll-in.
• VO/SOT/VO (VSV) = Video bookends the soundbite with footage for live V.O. commentary before & after.
• TEASE: Written to hook the audience for later.
• LEAD: Beginning of the story, often shot with a live reporter or pre-recorded stand up on location.
• TOSS: Sets up the next story or person reporting, also used as a transitional element back to the studio.
• TAG: Closes the story, call to action, or sign off with station identification, "Reporting for KCAL9, I'm Jen Vaughn"
• BRIDGE: Used in the middle of the package as a transitional element.
• WALK & TALK: Reporter walks as they deliver their lines; adding movement, making the shot more dynamic.
• PAN/VO: The camera starts with a reporter on screen, then the camera pans to reveal as the report continues VO (or vice versa).

## Documentary and Reality TV story formats

Documentaries, reality TV, and “DocuReal” programs are often produced by interviewing a subject (or multiple subjects) about a topic. These interviews are transcribed and a story producer decides which parts of the interview will be included in the edit. The interview footage is edited together with “B-roll” footage that provides visual context about the story.

## Client-Based Work

Public Service Announcements (PSA’s), commercials, promotional videos, and short-format videos use multi-column scripts to easily convey the visual cues and dialogue of the script. When working as a freelance producer or videographer you might encounter work in the field of real estate or corporate training videos. Client-based work always includes a script, often many drafts and reiterations of a script, before the project estimate is finalized and production begins.

Producing digital content for social media often has a very quick turnaround time. Producers that have the luxury of working with an editor rely on multi-column scripting to convey important information about graphics and b-roll to include. Many digital content producers have to edit their own content, and sometimes skip this step and create the story on the timeline.

This page titled 3.3: Multi-Column Scripts is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jennifer Vaughn (ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative (OERI)) .