Aristotle, largely considered the first literary critic, set out to define the elements of drama in Poetics (341 BCE). These elements are, in order of importance:
- Plot - the events or order of the events in the play AKA the story itself
- Character - the development of a character. A character must change and go through struggles to elicit "fear and pity" or catharsis
- Thought - the deeper themes, philosophies, or ideas reflected in the play
- Diction - the use of "poetic speech" or literary devices
- Song - the music which accompanies the drama
- Spectacle - the visual impact, such as props and costumes, or what we might today call special effects
While scholars today have a somewhat different idea about the important features of drama, they do mostly agree with Aristotle that the most important characteristic of drama is its plot.
As discussed in the Creative Nonfiction and Fiction chapters, plot is the most important element in a narrative. It is the events in the play and the order in which the events are told. There is no one correct way to structure a drama! However, the structure of a drama is only as effective as it is intentionally formed to elicit the desired response from its audience. A play usually has a beginning, middle, and end. It almost always has a character grow and develop over the course of the play. Let's look closely at one type of plot structure in order to see what plot might look like.
According to Aristotle, an effective plot of a Tragedy follows this order:
- Inciting incident: two brothers murdering each other and their uncle, the King, refusing to bury one of the brothers
- Rising Action: the conflict builds, such as when the sister of the murdered brothers defies her uncle the King and buries her brother against his orders and then refuses to apologize. The king then commands his soldiers to bury his niece alive for her defiance!
- Anagnorisis or Scene of Recognition: the king finally realizes he has been a stubborn bonehead (excessive pride, hubris) and has a serious character flaw (hamartia) when a respected elder tells him he is wrong for burying his niece and denying her the right to bury her brother.
- Peripeteia or Reversal of Fortune: the king's recognition of his error comes too late: just as he sends his soldiers to free the niece from her cave, she dies in her cave and the king's son -- his niece's betrothed -- has killed himself in sorrow.
- Scene of Suffering: there is a massive scene of death and weeping and the king is ashamed of his mistakes. The audience feels pity and fear watching the king suffer, and this helps purge their feelings of pity and fear.
This structure might look something like this:
Not all plays or even tragedies follow this structure exactly. That being said, it can be helpful to analyze the ways in which a plot's structure is formed, as this can reveal deeper meanings. For example, what would have happened if the above mentioned King had recognized his tragic flaw (hamartia) in time to save his niece? This would have been a very different play: perhaps even a Romance if the niece and king's son married and lived happily ever after. As in this example (based on Antigone by Sophocles), the structure of a play can have profound effects on its meaning or even genre!
To provide the story’s setting, a play requires sets. If you’ve ever been involved with a play, you know that the set can be made up of detailed backdrops, specifically designed props, strategic lighting, and sometimes even background noise. A set, along with the characters’ subtle indications of the scene, can generate a full setting in the audience’s imagination. For example, the play Hamlet starts its setting on a creepy, dark, foggy, cold night in the fictional Castle Elsinore on Denmark. The setting is often established on a stage, or the physical space upon which actors move. In order for a play to take place, there must be actors (people performing the play), an audience (people viewing the play), and action and/or dialogue as performed by the actors.
While in short stories or novels a reader must wait until a character appears to know who the important characters are, in a play they are often the first aspect of the text encountered by readers. The character list usually appears in the first pages of the play. This is because, as a play emphasizes action over narration, the actors must know their parts!
Usually, the most important characters are listed first. Think most spoken lines, protagonists, antagonists, etc. However, the order in which the characters appear on the character list does not necessarily dictate the order of appearance. Like in Creative Nonfiction or Fiction, writers develop characters over the course of the play. Different characters serve different roles such as protagonist, antagonist, or foil. There are a few types of character archetypes unique to drama which are described below. Note that not all of them will be in every play!
- Protagonist: the hero of the play. Usually the main character or the character with the most spoken lines, or the character around whom all the other characters seem to orbit. Hamlet would be an example of a protagonist.
- Antagonist: the villain of the play, usually opposite the protagonist. Claudius would be an example of an antagonist.
- Foil: this is a character meant to define another character through juxtaposition or comparison. For example, in Hamlet, Old Hamlet and Old Fortinbras and Hamlet and Fortinbras are often considered foils of each other. Fortinbras and Hamlet are both on paths of vengeance, yet each goes about their vengeance in different ways. While Fortinbras uses military strength, Hamlet chooses to use his intellect. While Fortinbras is decisive, Hamlet seems paralyzed by indecision. By examining the ways in which these two characters are similar and different, we can learn a lot about each of them and their significance in the play.
- Wise Elder: in most plays, there is a wise old man or figure of wisdom who guides the protagonist. In Hamlet, it might be the ghost of his father, or Polonius can be a silly inversion of this archetype. In Antigone, it is probably Tieresias.
- Love interest: again, in most plays, there is usually a love interest of the protagonist, though not always. For Hamlet, this is Ophelia (though some scholars have argued Horatio!)
- Messenger: a character who delivers news
Dialogue and Action
One of the main differences between fiction and drama is that usually a play’s plot is primarily forwarded through dialogue and action. Dialogue is comprised of the words directly spoken by characters, while actions are the physical movements of the actors. In a novel, action is described in detail and dialogue is usually put in quotation marks. For example, consider the following example of action and dialogue from The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde:
Distinct from the novel form of dialogue evidenced above, in a play, any words which come after the character's name will be considered dialogue. Action is usually not described in great depth, and actors are to interpret what actions to take based on the dialogue. Consider this example from Hamlet by William Shakespeare:
MARCELLUS: Holla, Bernardo!
What, is Horatio there?
HORATIO: A piece of him.
BERNARDO: Welcome, Horatio. Welcome, good Marcellus.
MARCELLUS: What, has this thing appear'd again tonight?
BERNARDO: I have seen nothing.
In the above excerpt from the beginning of the play (1.1), Marcellus, Bernardo, and Horatio (soldiers) greet each other as they patrol the castle. When Horatio says "a piece of him," we might imagine the fog is so thick or the night so dark that only pieces of each character can be seen. Horatio might be holding up his hand in the torchlight. We might imagine the characters wandering about in the dark speaking to each other, a bit rattled, worrying if the mysterious "thing" Marcellus references will reappear. We learn later in the dialogue that "thing" is an apparition (ghost). None of the characters' movements are described, so we must infer what their actions are through their dialogue.
Although a novel’s narrator can describe in detail the thoughts and impressions of its characters, a play’s effects depend much more heavily on what the characters say and do. A play is a performance, a spectacle, rather than words on paper. That is, drama is a story performed by actors. Some plays do include a narrator or a chorus, to introduce the scene or set the tone of the play, but the bulk of the production’s effect is generated through the dialogue and its visual devices, and since the play’s script dictates what the characters will say and often, through stage direction, its production strategies as well, the script is crucial to a successful performance.
- Adapted from material originally published in "Drama as Genre" from Writing and Literature - Composition as Inquiry, Learning, Thinking, & Communication by Dr. Tanya Long Bennett of the University of North Georgia, CC BY-SA 4.0