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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    absence or lack That which is created by language since no word can capture the essence of the sign or thing named.        
    absence or lack That which is created by language since no word can capture the essence of the sign or thing named.        
    actual reader The real person who reads the literary work; he or she may not resemble the text’s implied reader.        
    actual reader The real person who reads the literary work; he or she may not resemble the text’s implied reader.        
    aesthetic appeal The overall attractiveness of a web page. On the web, we usually focus on visual aesthetics such as the colors, fonts, and layout of a given page. However, audio and video can also influence a site’s aesthetic appeal.        
    aesthetic appeal The overall attractiveness of a web page. On the web, we usually focus on visual aesthetics such as the colors, fonts, and layout of a given page. However, audio and video can also influence a site’s aesthetic appeal.        
    aesthetic reading What the reader actually experiences while reading a text (in contrast to the efferent reading).        
    aesthetic reading What the reader actually experiences while reading a text (in contrast to the efferent reading).        
    affective fallacy A reading fallacy produced when a critic brings in his or her personal feelings about how a literary work moves them. Reader-response theory of this book, is a direct challenge to this tenet of New Criticism.        
    affective fallacy fallacy Term coined by Stanley Fish to express reader-response critics’ rejection of the New Critics’ affective fallacy. Reader-response critics believe that we should not repress our personal responses to literature but rather explore them in our writing.        
    affective fallacy fallacy Term coined by Stanley Fish to express reader-response critics’ rejection of the New Critics’ affective fallacy. Reader-response critics believe that we should not repress our personal responses to literature but rather explore them in our writing.        
    affective stylistics A form of experiential reader-response criticism in which readers first surrender themselves to the text, then concentrate on their reading responses while reading, and ultimately describe the reading experience by structuring their reading responses.        
    affective stylistics A form of experiential reader-response criticism in which readers first surrender themselves to the text, then concentrate on their reading responses while reading, and ultimately describe the reading experience by structuring their reading responses.        
    anachronism Something placed in an incorrect time period. In literature, anachronism often refers to objects, ideas, phrases, or the like placed in historically inappropriate scenes. For instance, if a character in a story set during the Civil War (1861–1865) was described driving a car, we would call the car anachronistic.        
    anachronism Something placed in an incorrect time period. In literature, anachronism often refers to objects, ideas, phrases, or the like placed in historically inappropriate scenes. For instance, if a character in a story set during the Civil War (1861–1865) was described driving a car, we would call the car anachronistic.        
    animus Archetype for the woman. The animus represents the paternal, Logos, and reason.        
    animus Archetype for the woman. The animus represents the paternal, Logos, and reason.        
    archetypes Particular images or symbols that are part of the collective unconscious. The major archetypes include the Self, the shadow, the anima, and the animus.        
    archetypes Particular images or symbols that are part of the collective unconscious. The major archetypes include the Self, the shadow, the anima, and the animus.        
    biographical fallacy Interpretation error committed when a critic uses an author’s life as a frame of reference to interpret a work of literature.        
    biographical fallacy Interpretation error committed when a critic uses an author’s life as a frame of reference to interpret a work of literature.        
    canonical The set of texts considered central to literary study: the books, poems, plays, and essays most frequently studied and taught. A canonical text, then, is a text that is frequently included in literary scholarship and in literature classes.        
    canonical The set of texts considered central to literary study: the books, poems, plays, and essays most frequently studied and taught. A canonical text, then, is a text that is frequently included in literary scholarship and in literature classes.        
    catharsis An emotional release. The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued that plays, or literature, should provide this experience for their audience.        
    catharsis An emotional release. The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued that plays, or literature, should provide this experience for their audience.        
    collective unconscious The universal storehouse of images common to all humanity.        
    collective unconscious The universal storehouse of images common to all humanity.        
    compulsory heterosexuality Term coined by Adrienne Rich that suggests that people are forced into traditional heterosexual roles.        
    compulsory heterosexuality Term coined by Adrienne Rich that suggests that people are forced into traditional heterosexual roles.        
    constructionism Belief that gender—and some would argue biological sex—are socially constructed and thus arbitrary markers to define one’s identity.        
    constructionism Belief that gender—and some would argue biological sex—are socially constructed and thus arbitrary markers to define one’s identity.        
    counterclaim A specific, debatable, and reasonable statement that challenges, amends, or repurposes another scholar’s claim about a work of literature.        
    counterclaim A specific, debatable, and reasonable statement that challenges, amends, or repurposes another scholar’s claim about a work of literature.        
    cultural Type of criticism that focuses on the various personal backgrounds that readers bring to a text and how these backgrounds shape the readers’ interpretations.        
    cultural Type of criticism that focuses on the various personal backgrounds that readers bring to a text and how these backgrounds shape the readers’ interpretations.        
    cultural materialism Cultural materialism views all texts—for example, literature, religious tracts, political polemics, or scientific discoveries—as artifacts of history that reflect larger cultural issues.        
    cultural materialism Cultural materialism views all texts—for example, literature, religious tracts, political polemics, or scientific discoveries—as artifacts of history that reflect larger cultural issues.        
    Darwinian literary criticism Literary method based on the belief that stories—that art in general—hold a key to human survival since storytelling or art making must provide an advantage for survival.        
    Darwinian literary criticism Literary method based on the belief that stories—that art in general—hold a key to human survival since storytelling or art making must provide an advantage for survival.        
    DEFT Critic Norman Holland’s process for reading a text, which involves defense, expectation, fantasy, and transformation.        
    desire-of-the-mother Found in the Imaginary and Mirror stages, where the mother is one with the child and satisfies all wants and desires.        
    desire-of-the-mother Found in the Imaginary and Mirror stages, where the mother is one with the child and satisfies all wants and desires.        
    digital archives Digital archives are collections of primary or secondary sources stored in electronic databases.        
    digital archives Digital archives are collections of primary or secondary sources stored in electronic databases.        
    displacement Placing desire onto another, safe object or outlet.        
    displacement Placing desire onto another, safe object or outlet.        
    ecocriticism A school of literary criticism that studies the depiction of the physical environment in works of literature. Ecocriticism often focuses on the way literary works depict human attitudes toward and interactions with the natural world.        
    ecocriticism A school of literary criticism that studies the depiction of the physical environment in works of literature. Ecocriticism often focuses on the way literary works depict human attitudes toward and interactions with the natural world.        
    ecofeminism Critical approach that focuses on the connections between human gender relations and humans’ relationship to the natural world. Ecofeminists critique both the oppression of women by men and the oppression of nature by humans.        
    ecofeminism Critical approach that focuses on the connections between human gender relations and humans’ relationship to the natural world. Ecofeminists critique both the oppression of women by men and the oppression of nature by humans.        
    Feminine writing Method that contemplates whether women write differently than men, creating a kind of “women’s writing” that challenges the assumptions of men’s writing.        
    Feminine writing Method that contemplates whether women write differently than men, creating a kind of “women’s writing” that challenges the assumptions of men’s writing.        
    Feminism Movement that strives for societal change to make women equal to men in the public and private spheres.        
    Feminism Movement that strives for societal change to make women equal to men in the public and private spheres.        
    Fixed norms The beliefs upon which a literary work depends. Unlike nonce beliefs, these are applicable to the real world outside the text.        
    Fixed norms The beliefs upon which a literary work depends. Unlike nonce beliefs, these are applicable to the real world outside the text.        
    geospatial A term that can describe a range of data and/or methodologies related to place. Geospatial research can include maps, census data, topographic data, and other layers that help describe a physical place and the people (or plants, animals, etc.) who live there.        
    geospatial A term that can describe a range of data and/or methodologies related to place. Geospatial research can include maps, census data, topographic data, and other layers that help describe a physical place and the people (or plants, animals, etc.) who live there.        
    Google Earth Free software that allows users to plot points on a globe, annotating them with contextual information. When combined with David Rumsey’s Historical Maps Collection, Google Earth allows users to view the globe as it was described at previous points in history.        
    Google Earth Free software that allows users to plot points on a globe, annotating them with contextual information. When combined with David Rumsey’s Historical Maps Collection, Google Earth allows users to view the globe as it was described at previous points in history.        
    Gynocriticism Literary method that focuses on women writers and how they depict issues related to being a woman in a patriarchal culture.        
    Gynocriticism Literary method that focuses on women writers and how they depict issues related to being a woman in a patriarchal culture.        
    heresy of paraphrase An interpretive error that happens when readers artificially separate meaning from the structure or form of the literary work.        
    heresy of paraphrase An interpretive error that happens when readers artificially separate meaning from the structure or form of the literary work.        
    homosocial desire Term used by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick to define the relationships between men that are not explicitly sexual because society prevents that desire by privileging heterosexual desire.        
    homosocial desire Term used by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick to define the relationships between men that are not explicitly sexual because society prevents that desire by privileging heterosexual desire.        
    hyperlinks Text in an online document that links to another resource on the web. Hyperlinks are often visually distinct from nonlinked text on a web page.        
    hyperlinks Text in an online document that links to another resource on the web. Hyperlinks are often visually distinct from nonlinked text on a web page.        
    identity analysis A form of psychological reader-response criticism; it posits that we are drawn to literary works that speak to our psychological needs—and, conversely, we are repelled or troubled by works that do not meet our needs.        
    identity analysis A form of psychological reader-response criticism; it posits that we are drawn to literary works that speak to our psychological needs—and, conversely, we are repelled or troubled by works that do not meet our needs.        
    implied author The narrative voice an author creates in his or her work. The implied author guides or directs the reader’s interpretation of the text.        
    implied author The narrative voice an author creates in his or her work. The implied author guides or directs the reader’s interpretation of the text.        
    information overload The idea that so much information is now available to human beings that we cannot process it effectively.        
    information overload The idea that so much information is now available to human beings that we cannot process it effectively.        
    intentional fallacy Fallacy committed when readers equate meaning with the author’s intended meaning. New Critics argue that since a literary work belongs to the readers, to the public, the work must be isolated from what the author may have intended in the work.        
    intentional fallacy Fallacy committed when readers equate meaning with the author’s intended meaning. New Critics argue that since a literary work belongs to the readers, to the public, the work must be isolated from what the author may have intended in the work.        
    interpretive communities A group of readers who share common beliefs that cause them to read a text in a similar way. For example, feminist critics are trained to identify and analyze gender issues, so it’s likely that two feminist critics who read the same text will have similar interpretations.        
    interpretive communities A group of readers who share common beliefs that cause them to read a text in a similar way. For example, feminist critics are trained to identify and analyze gender issues, so it’s likely that two feminist critics who read the same text will have similar interpretations.        
    Intersectionality A theory frequently used in feminist analyses and in sociological studies that sees the various forms of oppression in a society—race, class, gender, sexuality, ability, religion, and so on—as being interconnected. It holds that because our identities are made up of a variety of markers, we each experience the matrix of oppression in a unique way.        
    Intersectionality A theory frequently used in feminist analyses and in sociological studies that sees the various forms of oppression in a society—race, class, gender, sexuality, ability, religion, and so on—as being interconnected. It holds that because our identities are made up of a variety of markers, we each experience the matrix of oppression in a unique way.        
    irony Irony happens when a reader recognizes a reality different from the appearance. For the New Critics, irony was a sophisticated literary technique that helped a writer bring complexity—and unity and harmony—to the work.        
    irony Irony happens when a reader recognizes a reality different from the appearance. For the New Critics, irony was a sophisticated literary technique that helped a writer bring complexity—and unity and harmony—to the work.        
    je “I,” which in Lacanian thought is the actual speaking subject, the person.        
    je “I,” which in Lacanian thought is the actual speaking subject, the person.        
    KMZ A file format that allows users to share events plotted in Google Earth with other users.        
    KMZ A file format that allows users to share events plotted in Google Earth with other users.        
    LGBTQ Acronym that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer identities.        
    LGBTQ Acronym that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer identities.        
    Literary maps A map that traces spatial elements within a literary work, such as plotting the locations characters visit within a novel.        
    Literary maps A map that traces spatial elements within a literary work, such as plotting the locations characters visit within a novel.        
    man box Term used by Jackson Katz to demonstrate how men are controlled by society’s view of masculinity, thus forcing men to perform the stereotypes of what it means to be a man.        
    man box Term used by Jackson Katz to demonstrate how men are controlled by society’s view of masculinity, thus forcing men to perform the stereotypes of what it means to be a man.        
    mandala ; symbol for the unified Self—wholeness.        
    mandala ; symbol for the unified Self—wholeness.        
    meme Pattern of narrative that is culturally inherited, modified, and adapted. Memes become core narratives for cultural bonding and thus survival.        
    meme Pattern of narrative that is culturally inherited, modified, and adapted. Memes become core narratives for cultural bonding and thus survival.        
    metaphor When one object is equated with another, thus substituting for that object: “my love is a red red rose” (metaphor), rather than “my love is like a red red rose” (simile).        
    metaphor When one object is equated with another, thus substituting for that object: “my love is a red red rose” (metaphor), rather than “my love is like a red red rose” (simile).        
    Mirror stage Stage where child passes from the Imaginary (believing in unity) to the Symbolic (which is a world of differences).        
    Mirror stage Stage where child passes from the Imaginary (believing in unity) to the Symbolic (which is a world of differences).        
    misogynist The hatred of men for women. Masculinity studies often points out how this supposed misogyny is created by accepted definitions of how men should act.        
    misogynist The hatred of men for women. Masculinity studies often points out how this supposed misogyny is created by accepted definitions of how men should act.        
    myths An archetypal story that mirrors the quest for the complete Self. Myths are part of the collective unconsciousness.        
    myths An archetypal story that mirrors the quest for the complete Self. Myths are part of the collective unconsciousness.        
    New Criticism The name for the literary theory movement that developed in the 1940s that demands that a critic concentrate on the literary work itself to find the harmony and unity of the work that reflects an ultimate truth.        
    New Criticism The name for the literary theory movement that developed in the 1940s that demands that a critic concentrate on the literary work itself to find the harmony and unity of the work that reflects an ultimate truth.        
    nonthreatening argument A philosophy of argument developed by Carl Rogers that is based on the notion that strong statements lead to strong responses, thus creating conflict and decreasing the effectiveness of the debate or argument.        
    nonthreatening argument A philosophy of argument developed by Carl Rogers that is based on the notion that strong statements lead to strong responses, thus creating conflict and decreasing the effectiveness of the debate or argument.        
    numbered lists Lists in which the items are deliberately ordered and are prefaced by a number or letter that indicates sequence.        
    numbered lists Lists in which the items are deliberately ordered and are prefaced by a number or letter that indicates sequence.        
    objet petit a “Little object ‘a.’” The desire to find such an object, which provides temporary meaning, yet shifts since the sign system is only an approximation of meaning.        
    objet petit a “Little object ‘a.’” The desire to find such an object, which provides temporary meaning, yet shifts since the sign system is only an approximation of meaning.        
    Omeka A web-publishing platform that allows anyone with an account to create or collaborate on a website to display collections and build digital exhibitions.        
    Omeka A web-publishing platform that allows anyone with an account to create or collaborate on a website to display collections and build digital exhibitions.        
    Others A term used by postcolonial theorists to describe groups of people who are denigrated and/or oppressed by those in positions of power. During colonial times, for instance, Indians were treated as Others by English colonizers, who saw their own culture as superior to Indian culture.        
    Others A term used by postcolonial theorists to describe groups of people who are denigrated and/or oppressed by those in positions of power. During colonial times, for instance, Indians were treated as Others by English colonizers, who saw their own culture as superior to Indian culture.        
    Patriarchal criticism Literary method that examines how writers—particularly male writers—depict women in literature; this criticism often highlights the sexist stereotypes that privilege men over women.        
    Patriarchal criticism Literary method that examines how writers—particularly male writers—depict women in literature; this criticism often highlights the sexist stereotypes that privilege men over women.        
    patriarchy Ideology, or belief system of a society, of male domination over women that pervades the public and private spheres.        
    patriarchy Ideology, or belief system of a society, of male domination over women that pervades the public and private spheres.        
    phallic stage Stage in which a child discovers his or her sexual organs—specifically, the presence or lack of a penis—and begins sexual development.        
    phallic stage Stage in which a child discovers his or her sexual organs—specifically, the presence or lack of a penis—and begins sexual development.        
    phallus The privileged sign that represents the name-of-the-father.        
    phallus The privileged sign that represents the name-of-the-father.        
    postcolonial Postcolonial theories attempt to understand and explain the cultural, intellectual, and societal legacies of colonial rule.        
    postcolonial Postcolonial theories attempt to understand and explain the cultural, intellectual, and societal legacies of colonial rule.        
    power structures The political, religious, educational, or social institutions that control or attempt to control the discourse of a society and often control the way literature is published, read, and interpreted.        
    power structures The political, religious, educational, or social institutions that control or attempt to control the discourse of a society and often control the way literature is published, read, and interpreted.        
    prewriting Short, informal activities that help writers generate ideas for longer projects (e.g., freewriting or journaling).        
    prewriting Short, informal activities that help writers generate ideas for longer projects (e.g., freewriting or journaling).        
    primary sources Primary sources are literary or nonliterary texts from the period under study. In literary studies, stories, poems, and plays are primary sources, as are other historical documents such as letters, essays, sermons, and autobiographies.        
    primary sources Primary sources are literary or nonliterary texts from the period under study. In literary studies, stories, poems, and plays are primary sources, as are other historical documents such as letters, essays, sermons, and autobiographies.        
    public or open-access scholarship Research and publication practices that are open to all interested readers, rather than being restricted to the subscribers of particular journals or databases. Public scholarship is often distributed online, through a scholar’s personal website, or through an open-access journal or archive.        
    public or open-access scholarship Research and publication practices that are open to all interested readers, rather than being restricted to the subscribers of particular journals or databases. Public scholarship is often distributed online, through a scholar’s personal website, or through an open-access journal or archive.        
    revision The stage of the writing process in which a writer reviews his or her work with an eye toward coherence of argument and elegance of expression. During revision, a writer will make often substantial changes to his or her writing that will help his or her readers follow the piece’s claims. Often a writer will incorporate or respond to the suggestions of peer and expert reviewers during the revision stage.        
    revision The stage of the writing process in which a writer reviews his or her work with an eye toward coherence of argument and elegance of expression. During revision, a writer will make often substantial changes to his or her writing that will help his or her readers follow the piece’s claims. Often a writer will incorporate or respond to the suggestions of peer and expert reviewers during the revision stage.        
    revision Making significant improvements to a written work with a particular eye toward the strength of an argument and the clarity of its expression. Revision may include deleting unnecessary information, moving prose elements, adding new transitions between ideas, and enhancing research within the argument.        
    revision Making significant improvements to a written work with a particular eye toward the strength of an argument and the clarity of its expression. Revision may include deleting unnecessary information, moving prose elements, adding new transitions between ideas, and enhancing research within the argument.        
    Romanticism A movement of artists, writers, and philosophers during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Continental Europe, England, and the United States. Romantic thinkers and writers idealized emotional experiences and the natural world, eschewing many of the scientific, industrial, and capitalistic ideals that had come to define their societies.        
    Romanticism A movement of artists, writers, and philosophers during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Continental Europe, England, and the United States. Romantic thinkers and writers idealized emotional experiences and the natural world, eschewing many of the scientific, industrial, and capitalistic ideals that had come to define their societies.        
    secondary revision The dream we remember, placed in a fable or story-form structure.        
    secondary revision The dream we remember, placed in a fable or story-form structure.        
    secondary sources A text—such as a book or an article—written by a scholar about a particular literary work, historical period, or other academic topic.        
    secondary sources A text—such as a book or an article—written by a scholar about a particular literary work, historical period, or other academic topic.        
    secondary sources Secondary sources are books and articles written by scholars about a particular literary work, historical period, or other academic topic.        
    secondary sources Secondary sources are books and articles written by scholars about a particular literary work, historical period, or other academic topic.        
    shadow Key archetype that challenges the concept of self; the shadow is the dark side of the Self, or the moral problem that the Self must confront.        
    shadow Key archetype that challenges the concept of self; the shadow is the dark side of the Self, or the moral problem that the Self must confront.        
    signified The second part of the sign system; the tangible object or “real” concept that is represented by the signifier.        
    signified The second part of the sign system; the tangible object or “real” concept that is represented by the signifier.        
    skimmable A skimmable document is easy to understand quickly. It includes headings, summaries, and lists that help readers grasp the big ideas in the document without reading its details.        
    skimmable A skimmable document is easy to understand quickly. It includes headings, summaries, and lists that help readers grasp the big ideas in the document without reading its details.        
    soft-core Theory that is based on questioning and predicting, leading to the mapping of ideas, not necessarily solutions. The foundation of the humanities, particularly literary studies.        
    soft-core Theory that is based on questioning and predicting, leading to the mapping of ideas, not necessarily solutions. The foundation of the humanities, particularly literary studies.        
    subjective criticism A form of reader-response criticism that views a literary work as comprising both the concrete text and our interpretation of it. The text’s meaning is ultimately created when readers compare their responses with each other to develop a communal interpretation.        
    subjective criticism A form of reader-response criticism that views a literary work as comprising both the concrete text and our interpretation of it. The text’s meaning is ultimately created when readers compare their responses with each other to develop a communal interpretation.        
    superego The moral code that reflects a variety of authority—social, parental, religious.        
    superego The moral code that reflects a variety of authority—social, parental, religious.        
    Thanatos The driving force of death; humans have a simultaneous fear and fascination with this unknown.        
    Thanatos The driving force of death; humans have a simultaneous fear and fascination with this unknown.        
    thick description A thick description focuses on very specific textual details and explains those details by showing how they reflect, demonstrate, or challenge the text’s culture.        
    thick description A thick description focuses on very specific textual details and explains those details by showing how they reflect, demonstrate, or challenge the text’s culture.        
    unconscious The part of our mind that is buried deep within consciousness and seeks outlets.        
    unconscious The part of our mind that is buried deep within consciousness and seeks outlets.        
    unreliable narrator A narrator that cannot be trusted because he or she has a limited viewpoint (often this is a first-person narrator). An unreliable narrator forces the reader to respond to the text on a moral plane.        
    unreliable narrator A narrator that cannot be trusted because he or she has a limited viewpoint (often this is a first-person narrator). An unreliable narrator forces the reader to respond to the text on a moral plane.        
    warrants Warrants are the (often unspoken) values and assumptions that shape how readers understand evidence and the claims they believe that evidence will support. Warrants will be discussed later in the chapter.        
    warrants Warrants are the (often unspoken) values and assumptions that shape how readers understand evidence and the claims they believe that evidence will support. Warrants will be discussed later in the chapter.        
    well-wrought urn An image that reflects the central tenet of New Critical close reading—to focus solely on the literary work as a self-contained artistic object.        
    well-wrought urn An image that reflects the central tenet of New Critical close reading—to focus solely on the literary work as a self-contained artistic object.        
    working thesis A thesis is the major claim of your paper: a specific, debatable point that you seek to demonstrate about the work you are studying. Your working thesis is part of the writing process; it’s your initial hunch about the work that allows you to begin the process of research and writing. The working thesis is usually revised and refined through the writing process.        
    working thesis A thesis is the major claim of your paper: a specific, debatable point that you seek to demonstrate about the work you are studying. Your working thesis is part of the writing process; it’s your initial hunch about the work that allows you to begin the process of research and writing. The working thesis is usually revised and refined through the writing process.        
    writing process The series of steps (e.g., prewriting, researching, drafting, and revising) that contribute to a final, polished paper. This process is not linear but recursive, as writers shuttle back and forth in these steps as they compose.        
    writing process The series of steps (e.g., prewriting, researching, drafting, and revising) that contribute to a final, polished paper. This process is not linear but recursive, as writers shuttle back and forth in these steps as they compose.        
    yonic symbol Symbols that represent the female/feminine power, usually round objects.        
    yonic symbol Symbols that represent the female/feminine power, usually round objects.        
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