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2.1: 会話1

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    At an ATM.

    Honda: Dou shita no? Nani ka mondai? どうしたの?何か問題 もんだい ? What’s wrong? Any problem?

    Michael: Kore, yomenai no. これ、読 よ めないの。 I cannot read this.

    Honda : Aa, pasuwaado o irete kudasai tte. ああ、「パスワードを入 い れてください」って。 Oh, it says, ‘Please enter your password.”

    Michael: Okkee. Minai de yo. オッケー。見 み ないでよ。 Okay. Don’t look.

    Honda: Minai wa yo. 見 み ないわよ。 I’m not gonna look.



    mondai もんだい 問題 problem
    yomeru よめる 読める can read (See 10-1-1)
    yomenai よめない 読めない cannot read
    pasuwaado パスワード password
    ireru いれる 入れる enter; put it in
    +wasureru わすれる 忘れる forget
    +oboeru おぼえる 覚える remember; commit to memory
    minai de みないで 見ないで Don't look (See 10-1-2)


    Grammar Notes

    Verb Potential Forms

    The verb suru ‘do’ has a special potential form dekiru ‘can do’. For all the other verbs, there are different conjugation rules to make potential forms for different verb groups.

    Group 1: U-Verbs
    Change /u/ to /eru/
    The resulting form is a RU-verb. To make its negative form, change /ru/ to /nai/.
    nomu -> nomeru -> nomenai
    kau -> kaeru -> kaenai

    Group 2: RU-Verbs
    Change /ru/ to /rareru/ (or /reru/ for the newly emerging version)
    taberu -> taberareru (tabereru) -> taberarenai (taberenai)

    Group 3: Irregular Verbs
    kuru -> korareru (koreru) -> korarenai (korenai)
    suru -> dekiru -> dekinai
    iku -> ikeru -> ikenai
    no potential form for aru

    Group 4: Special Polite Verbs
    Follow the same rule as Group 1—change /u/ to /eru/
    Irassharu -> irasshareru -> irassharenai

    Note that the object of Potential verbs can be marked either by the particle o or ga, just like we saw before with the verb ~tai forms

    Kaado o/ga tsukaeru. You can use a credit card.
    Nihongo o/ga hanaseru. I can speak Japanese.


    Negative Requests

    Earlier, we learned that the~ te form of verbs are used to make a request.
    Casual: Tabete. Eat.
    Formal: Tabete kudasai. Please eat.
    More polite: Tabete itadakemasen ka. Could you please eat?

    To make a negative request (asking someone not to do something), you add de to the plain negative form of the verb.
    Casual: Tabenai de. Don’t eat.
    Formal: Tabenai de kudasai. Please don’t eat.
    More polite: Tabenai de itadakemasen ka. Could you please not eat?

    Some sentence particles can follow these requests with an added meaning.
    Tabenai de ne? Don’t eat, okay?
    Tabenai de yo. Don’t eat, I’m telling you.

    2.1: 会話1 is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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